Pope Saint Marcellus I becomes the 30th successor of Peter. Since his pontificate came after the throne had been vacant for four years, he would have to deal with the difficult problems of pardoning those who had abjured during the persecutions. He would also decree that a Council could not be held without the authorization of the Pope.
Pope Saint Gregory II elevates Saint Boniface to Bishop, sending him to Germany.
Pope Innocent III closes the 4th Lateran Council - Twelfth Ecumenical Council in which a crusade had been planned, a decree had been made on annual communion, the heretic Albigenses was condemned, and numerous reforms enacted.
England tries to reconcile with Rome and Pope Julius III after the death of Henry VIII, but most of the damage had already been done and the Catholic Church would never hold prominence in Britain again with the exception of Ireland which would remain loyal to the Holy See through all adversity over the centuries.
Death of Pope Pius VIII, 253rd successor of Peter. This open-minded pontiff who had been born in Cingoli, Rome died at the age of 69 after dealing with the Sultan in favor of the Armenians, beginning the postal service of the Vatican State, and strengthening missionary activity throughout the world. It was during his pontificate that the political movement gained steam for reunification of Italy and would eventually lead to the end of the papal states and the establishment of Vatican City.
Pope John Paul II publishes his second encyclical Dives in misericordia on Divine Mercy.