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February 20-22, 1998             SECTION TWO              vol 9, no. 37



Last weekend of Ordinary Time until the month of June

     Before we phase out Ordinary Time we celebrate the Ordinary of the Mass until Monday, but sharing this on Saturday are the feast of Saint Peter Damian a bishop and Doctor of the Church from the time of Saint John the Apostle and the last observance of the Blessed Virgin Mary on Saturday until June 6th. Though Sunday is the Seventh and last Sunday in Ordinary Time until June 21, it is also the feast of the Chair of Saint Peter which, sadly, is not celebrated this year. Monday we commemorate the martyred bishop Saint Polycarp. For vignettes on all of these and the liturgical readings and meditations through the weekend, click on LITURGY OF THE DAY

FRIDAY, February 20, 1998


SATURDAY, February 21, 1998

Saint Peter Damian, Bishop and Doctor

      Born in Ravenna, Italy at the turn of the second millennium, Saint Peter Damian became an orphan at a very early age and was cared for by his brother for whom Peter tended pigs. One of Peter's older brothers was a priest - Padre Damian and when Peter was older the priest sent him to Faenza and then to Parma to receive his education. Peter adopted his older brother's religious name as his surname. After Peter became a professor, he followed the promptings of the Holy Spirit which lead him to join the Benedictines at the monastery of Fonte Aveliana where he lived as a hermit, devoting his life to an intensive study of the Scriptures. At the age of 42 he was chosen prior and subsequently founded five more Benedictine hermitages. His fame for great austerity and denunciation of simony spread throughout Europe and he was consecrated a Cardinal as Bishop of Ostia by Pope Stephen IX in 1057. However, because of his disdain for worldliness and his uncompromising stance against the trappings of the bishopric, he tried to resign his see but Stephen's successor Pope Nicholas II wouldn't accept it. When Nicholas died Peter entreated the new pontiff Pope Alexander II to accept his resignation which was duly recognized and Peter returned to being a Benedictine monk, but he never stopped working on ecclesiastical reform. He especially defended Alexander against the antipope Honorius II and became known far and wide as a great reformer and peacemaker, including being sent by the Pope to Germany to talk the German King Henry IV out of divorcing his wife Bertha. Peter was a prolific writer and penned many mystical writings on the Eucharist and Purgatory as well as producing writings which hold today in regards the explanation of clerical celibacy, immorality, and simony. He died in Faenza, Italy in 1072 at the age of 71 enroute back from Ravenna after having reconciled that see with Rome. It was not until the nineteenth century that he was canonized though he was popularized by local cults including being immortalized in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries by Italian poet Dante in his work Divine Comedy. In 1828 Pope Leo XII officially recognized Peter as a saint of the Church and proclaimed him a Doctor, extending his feast to the Universal Church on February 21st each year.

Observance of the Blessed Virgin Mary on Saturday

      Honoring the Blessed Virgin Mary is a custom first promoted by the Benedictine Monk Saint Alcuin back in the days of Charlemagne (see archives December 23, no. 25 issue, volume 7). He composed different formulas for Votive Masses for each day of the week, with two set aside to honor Our Lady on Saturday. This practice caught on with great enthusiasm and eventually the Mass of the Blessed Virgin Mary on Saturday became the Common of the Blessed Virgin. This Mass was a favorite with retired priests and those whose sight was failing for most had memorized this Mass and were able to say it by heart without having to read the Lectionary or Sacramentary. One reason Saturday was dedicated to Mary was that Saturday held a special meaning in Mariology. First of all, as Genesis accounts for, God rested on the seventh day. In the Old Testament, the Sabbath was Saturday. Jesus, Son of God rested in the womb and then, when He became incarnate, in the loving arms of Mary from birth until she held His lifeless body at the foot of the Cross. Thus the God-head rested in Mary. It was also on Saturday after Good Friday that Jesus gave His Mother a special gift and reward for keeping her faith in His Divinity intact by making an exceptional appearance to her. Thus, because of these reasons, the devotion spread by St. Alcuin and other liturgies that evolved within the Church, Saturday took on a special Marian significance. Saturday took on even more significance in honoring Mary when Our Lady imparted to visionary Lucia in her third apparition at Fatima on July 13, 1917, "Our Lord wishes that devotion to my Immaculate Heart be established in the world. If what I tell you is done, many souls will be saved and there will be peace; the war will end...I ask the consecration of the world to my Immaculate Heart and Communion of reparation on the First Saturday of each month...If my requests are granted, Russia will be converted and there will be peace...In the end my Immaculate Heart will triumph, and an era of peace will be conceded to humanity." As we draw nearer to that wonderful event, it is more important than ever to honor Mary's request on the First Saturday as well as each Saturday that her feast is commemorated in the Church calendar, not to mention responding to her call daily with the Rosary and attending Daily Mass, nourished by her Divine Son present body and blood, soul and Divinity in the Blessed Sacrament. It is in the Mass of the Blessed Virgin Mary where she remains in the background in the liturgy of the Word so that her Divine Son's words and His Presence take the spotlight as He should while Mary remains the chief intercessor before the Holy Trinity as she should and serves as the ideal for all Catholics to strive for, as we should. The Dictionary of Mary states quite succinctly, "Through these liturgical acts, (honoring Mary on Saturday) Christians exalt the person of Mary in the action that renews the sacrifice of Christ and in the action that prolongs His prayer."

SUNDAY, February 22, 1998

Feast of the Chair of Peter

     This feast, designated for February 22, commemorates the first service in Rome by the first Pope in Rome - Saint Peter who established the see of Antioch. He is said to have sat on a portable chair that ultimately became the "chair of Peter" and which is a liturgical emphasis on the apostolic succession, the episcopacy within Holy Mother Church and the unbroken line of pontiffs since Peter. The chair is preserved in the Vatican with evidence of this being the authentic chair dating back to the second century. It was officially made a feast day in the Roman Calendar in 394 to coincide with the day the Romans commemorated their deceased. It was first celebrated at the old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome during the middle of the fifth century, preceded by an all night vigil with the Holy Father present. In the eighth century the Franks moved the feast to January 21 while the rest of Europe virtually ignored the feast altogether. However, at the beginning of the eleventh century it was revived and observed on February 22 where it has been fixed ever since.

MONDAY, February 23, 1998

Feast of Saint Polycarp, Bishop and Martyr

     Consecrated bishop of Smyrna by Saint John the Apostle, the holy Saint Polycarp staunchly defended the faith in the face of heresy, particularly Valentinianism and Marcionism. Born around 69 A.D. he dedicated his life to upholding the new Christian faith and preaching everywhere he went. Towards the end of his life when he was in his eighties, he traveled to Rome during the papacy of Pope Anicetus, the eleventh in the line of Peter. There Pope and bishop discussed a mutual date for Easter but could not come to an agreement and parted ways deciding each should celebrate it the way they had been doing it. Before he left Rome Polycarp was captured by the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and thrown into prison. Refusing to sacrifice to the gods, acknowledge the divinity of Aurelius and reject his faith, Polycarp was ordered to be burned at the stake. But as they flames seared up and around him, they miraculously did not touch him. Furious, the Emperor ordered the soldiers to spear him to death. There in Rome on February 23, he gave up the ghost. Historians gage his death anywhere between 155 and 165, because of his association with Anicetus who was pontiff during those years. Many regard Polycarp as the chief link between the apostolic age, when he knew some of the apostles such as John, to the age of the great Christian Writers in Roman Asia which evolved late in the second century. They consider his Martyrium Polycarpi the first and oldest authentic example of the Acts of the Martyrs.

Medjugorje Monthly Message for January 25th

      Dear children! Today again I call all of you to prayer. Only with prayer, dear children, will your heart change, become better, and be more sensitive to the Word of God. Little children, do not permit satan to pull you apart and to do with you what he wants. I call you to be responsible and determined and to consecrate each day to God in prayer. May Holy Mass, little children, not be a habit for you, but life. By living Holy Mass each day, you will feel the need for holiness and you will grow in holiness. I am close to you and intercede before God for each of you, so that He may give you strength to change your heart. Thank you for having responded to my call! For more on Medjugorje, click on MEDJUGORJE

679 - 678 - 677 and counting, hoping and praying..


WORLDWIDE NEWS & VIEWS with a Catholic slant

HEADLINES:

IRAQ HOPES FOR A PAPAL VISIT

     VATICAN (CWN) -- Patriarch Raphael Bidawid, the leader of the Chaldean Catholic Church, has said that Pope John Paul II has expressed a desire to visit Iraq, and trace the footsteps of Abraham. But the Patriarch conceded that the time is not right for a papal visit today.

      The Eastern-rite Catholic leader was quoted today in the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera, a week after he held private talks with the Holy Father. "We are waiting for the appropriate conditions" to allow a papal visit, he said. He said that an invitation for such a visit had been issued more than a year ago by the Church in Iraq, with the approval of the country's government. The Pope indicated a desire to make such a visit, he said.

      The Patriarch emphasized that the invitation, and the Pope's response, were not designed to have any impact on the current crisis; in fact the invitation came long before the latest developments. Rather, the Pope wishes to make a pilgrimage to the original home of Abraham.

      There are roughly 600,000 Catholics in Iraq, amidst an overall population of 20 million.


REPORTED APPARITION IN BOSNIA DRAWS CROWDS

     GRAB, Bosnia-Hercegovina (CWN) - Thousands of people have been gathering in the small village of Grab in recent weeks after two boys reported seeing an apparition of Jesus in a window on January 4.

      While Catholic officials have not commented on the matter, carloads of people from as far away as Italy and Germany have flocked to the house to see the reported miracle for themselves. The village is near Medjugorje, which has been the site of pilgrimage for millions since six children reported seeing a vision of the Virgin Mary in 1981, and about 60 miles southwest Sarajevo.

      "I don't know whether this is for real or not, but the fact is that I can see a figure and a crucifix," said a second-time visitor who identified himself only as Zoran.


VATICAN CAUTIOUS ON RESULTS OF FROZEN EMBRYO BIRTH

     VATICAN CITY (CWN) - An editorial in the official Vatican newspaper on Wednesday said the birth of child from an embryo frozen for 7 1/2 years was a positive event based on a negative foundation.

      The nearly 9 pound boy was born in California on Monday to parents who had conceived and frozen him as an embryo in 1989 using in vitro fertilization techniques. A son was born to them in 1990 using the treatments, and they forgot about the other child until last year when told that he would destroyed if they did not claim him.

      L'Osservatore Romano praised the parents' decision to give birth to the child and raise him in a loving home, but said the positive results do not exonerate the negative means of the fertility process. The Catholic Church teaches that in vitro fertilization and other similar fertility treatments are immoral because they result in the production of numerous embryonic, unborn children, most of whom are subsequently killed. "Every human being has the right to be conceived in a human way ... and carried in his mother's womb," the newspaper said.

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PRAYERS & DEVOTION

In honor of the Chair of Peter we include the Apostles' Creed today

      I believe in God the Father Almighty, Creator of Heaven and earth, and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, Our Lord; Who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and was buried. He descended into hell; the third day He arose again from the dead; He ascended into Heaven, seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting. Amen.


PROVERB OF THE DAY

"The honest man's virtue makes his way straight, but by his wickedness the wicked man falls."

Proverbs 11: 5

For all other standard features, articles and columns, click on Archives

Click here to return to SECTION ONE or click here to return to the graphics front page of this issue.


February 20-22, 1998 volume 9, no. 37          DAILY CATHOLIC