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November 10, 1998
SECTION TWO vol 9, no. 220
To print out entire text of Today's issue, print this section as well as SECTION ONE
LITURGY FOR TUESDAY AND WEDNESDAY
Today is the Feast of Pope Saint Leo the Great, Doctor of the Church. Tomorrow, on Veterans Day, we celebrate the Feast of Saint Martin of Tours, Bishop. For the readings, liturgies, meditations and vignettes of these saints, click on LITURGY FOR THE DAY.
Tuesday, November 10, 1998
First Reading: Titus 2: 1-8, 11-14
Psalms: Psalm 37: 3-4. 18, 23, 27, 29, 39
Gospel Reading: Luke 17: 7-10
Feast of Saint Leo the Great, Pope and Doctor of the Church
Pope Saint Leo the Great who became the 45th in the line of Peter when he was chosen to succeed Sixtus III on September 29, 440. Born in Tuscany, Italy near the very end of the 4th Century, Leo came up through the ranks of the Deaconate and was in France attempting to reconcile the warring factions there when he was elected Pope. Though, like most pontiffs, he did not feel worthy, he nevertheless accepted the privileged and august duties of leading God's people through the middle of a most turbulent century. Naturally the people looked to him for leadership and to save them from the plights that would afflict them, yet Leo, as a humble but effective deacon knew he couldn't do it by and of himself. He placed everything in God's hands and constantly sought the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Thus, in the hands of God, Leo became a powerful instrument to protect and honor the Church during the decay of the Roman Empire, the assaults of Arians, and the invasions of heathens. Three years into his papacy Leo convened an assembly to rebuke and endorse Pope Innocent I's condemnation of Manicheanism as well as exposing Nestorianism, Priscillianism, and Arianism. In 451 he called the Fourth General or Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon where he staunchly defended the Incarnation, defining the revealed teaching of faith that in Christ there are two distinct natures, the divine and the human, hypostatically united in one person. He also condemned the heresy of Eutyches. But the Byzantine Court did not convey his words to the people and the heresy grew stronger among the Eastern monks and bishops. This made it necessary for Leo to convene the Fifth Ecumenical Council, this time at Constantinople where he condemned in no uncertain terms the Three Chapters or heresies running rampant. He garnered the signatures of all the Bishops, proclaiming "Peter has spoken by Leo." He admonished his bishops to know their faith and to assure that their priests in each diocese were knowledgable in Dogma and Doctrine so that the people would not fall into the heresies that had assaulted the Church during the Third, Fourth and Fifth Centuries. Leo not only assured unity within ecclesiastical ranks, but re-established harmony among the faithful. He is called "great" because of his energetic work in maintaining unity, his involvement in the liturgy, politics, preaching and writings, which have been cherished and passed on through the ages. But to historians his greatest accomplishment came in 451.
The year before a barbaric horde known as the Huns had overrun the Empire, pillaging and plundering Gaul and moving rapidly from the north through Italy to the gates of Rome. Fearing no man, Leo chose to meet Attila face to face at the gates. Many felt it was suicide and that Rome's fall was a fait accomplis, but Leo knew God would protect him and so he bravely confronted the pagan king at the gates of Rome, pursuading Attila to abandon his plans to sack the city. To everyone's astonishment Attila rounded up his horde and turned away from Rome. It was another in the many encounters down through the centuries where, through the grace of God, a superior force is turned away, evidence David slaying Goliath, the victory at Lepanto, Saint Clare holding aloft the Blessed Sacrament in the monstrance to protect the city, and many more such cases where the power of God was manifested. Leo took very seriously his charge handed down from St. Peter to rule Christ's Church as Christ instructed. Leo knew it was not him who convinced Attila to forego his attempts on Rome, but the miraculous vision God allowed Attila to behold of Saints Peter and Paul standing behind Leo. The "Scourge of God" knew that any power this great was not to be messed with or he would be scourged by God, and so, totally overcome mentally by the vision he had seen, he retreated. It was the end of the threat so feared throughout Europe as the Hun king died two years later while Leo ruled another ten years, 21 in all, receiving his Heavenly reward on September 10, 461. In 1754 St. Leo was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Benedict XIV, honoring this great Pope for his great writings and wisdom at a pivotal time in Church and world history. He had shown great courage and his skills at governing the Church and emphasizing spirituality while juggling the political footballs of his time. His actions strengthened the Vatican's position in the world while bringing the people to a closer understanding of what Jesus meant in His words to Peter in Matthew 16: 18-19, "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give thee the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven; and whatever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in Heaven, and whatever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in Heaven."
Wednesday, November 11, 1998
First Reading: Titus 3: 1-7
Psalms: Psalm 23: 1-6
Gospel Reading: Luke 17: 11-19
Feast of Saint Martin of Tours, Bishop
Born the son of a Roman officer and pagan parents in Hungary around the year 319, Saint Martin of Tours became the epitome of the Good Samaritan throughout his life, beginning at the age of 15. Having been educated at Pavia, Italy, Martin followed his father's footsteps when he enlisted in the Roman army as an imperial guard. On one cold day, the legend relates, he came upon a barely-clothed beggar who was shivering. As people passed him by, ignoring his pleas, Martin felt compassion. Having no money, only his weapons and his long red army-issued cloak, Martin drew his sword and slashed the cloak in half, giving the poor man the cloak to warm him. As he slept that night, Martin had a vision in his dreams of Jesus Christ who was wrapped in the half cloak Martin had bestowed on the beggar. It was a confirmation of Christ's words in Matthew 25:35-40 specifically the last verse, "Amen I say to you, as long as you did for one of these, the least of My brethren, you did it for Me." The dream had such a profound effect on Martin that he immediately sought out the Christians for catechumenism. Constantine had passed the Edict of Milan and Christians were now free to openly profess their faith. After six years as a catachumen, Martin was baptized and traded his commission in the army for the minor order of exorcist by Saint Hilary of Poitiers. After Hilary was exiled, Martin went back to his Hungarian homeland, where, through his example he converted his pagan mother. After Hilary was allowed to return to Poitiers in France, Martin left Hungary to rejoin Hilary there as his disciple. Martin was ordained and became a hermit on land that would eventually become the monastery of Liguge - the first ever monastery in France that was reinstated by the Benedictines in 1852 and still exists today. Martin gained the reputation of being a miracle worker after he had brought a catechumen back to life. He became so popular that the people of Tours demanded he become their bishop when the vacancy came. In 371 he was selected Bishop of Tours and dedicated his episcopate to evangelization. Four years later he founded the monastery at Marmoutiers where vocations multiplied, providing many priest-monks for the region and beyond. He was an excellent diplomat and administrator, convincing representatives of the Roman Empire in the west that the Church should have the same guidelines and freedom in France that Constantine afforded Holy Mother Church in Rome. His austere lifestyle was a bone of contention among other bishops and priests who fought his attempts to instill this way of life on them. While at a country parish trying to quell the division among the clergy, he died in 397 at the age of 78. His efforts and the seeds of faith he planted in French soil nourished France for centuries where Tours became the focal point of monastic life. He was one of the most well-beloved bishops of the 4th Century and has always been one of France's favorite saints so much so that in the autumn, when the leaves begin to fall, they call it "St. Martin's summer" for that is the time the people drink the new wine that has been harvested and wine represents the fruit of Christian virtue which Martin personified.
PRAYERS & DEVOTION
Today's prayer is taken from the Opening Prayer for today's Mass honoring Pope Saint Leo the Great:
God our Father, You will never allow the power of hell to prevail against Your Church, founded on the rock of the apostle Peter. Let the prayers of Pope Leo the Great keep us faithful to Your Truth and secure in Your Peace.
Events Today in Church History
Today is the 449th anniversary of the death of the 220th successor of Peter Pope Paul III who was the man who, continuing the counter-reform movement against Protestantism, convened the landmark Council of Trent and also gave papal approval to the Society of Jesus, which, of course, is the priestly order known as the Jesuits. For other events throughout the centuries that are memorable in Church history today, click on MILLENNIUM MILESTONES AND MEMORIES
Historical Events in Church Annals for November 10:
Death of Pope Saint Leo the Great, Doctor of the Church. For more on this great saint and pontiff, see TODAY'S LITURGY
Death of Pope Celestine IV, 179th successor of Peter who had been elected on October 28, 1241. The cardinals had been unable to reach an agreement on his election so the Roman Senate closed them under lock and key in the ancient palace of the Settizonio on the Coelian Hill. From this episode the Church derives the term "conclave."
Death of King Pedro III, monarch of Aragon who had wrongly been excommunicated by French sympathizing Pope Martin V.
Death of Pope Paul III, 220th successor of Peter whose pontificate lasted just a week over 15 years. A great patron of culture and the arts, he nominated Michelangelo as architect for life of St. Peter's Basilica. In the climate created by the "Counter Reformation" he gave official approval to Saint Ignatius Loyola for the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and called the 19th Ecumenical Council - the landmark Council of Trent.
Death of Saint Andrew Avellino, 87-year old mystic and reformer who faced fierce harassment by those opposing reform within religious orders. He was a close friend of Saint Charles Borromeo and died in Naples on this date.
NEWS & VIEWS
with a Catholic slant
Pope calls for the world to respond to Hurricane victims as Miami group responds generously
During his weekly Sunday Angelus at St. Peter's, Pope John Paul II appealed to everyone to respond to the needs of the helpless victims of Hurricane Mitch and made another plea that peace can be achieved in the Congo and the Mid-East. While he was speaking in Rome, a group of former Nicaraguans in Miami banded together to do all they could to provide rations, food, money and clothes to the victims with a grass roots fundraising campaign throughout the city and drop-off points for supplies to be sent to the victims in these hurricane-ravaged countries of Central America. Not only Miami, but from Boston to San Diego Americans are opening their hearts, closets, cubbards and checkbooks to do all they can do to help and alleviate the unbelievable suffering of their brothers and sisters who were left homeless from the devastating floods on the Isthmus of the Americas. For more, click on Hurricane relief.
PAPAL APPEALS FOR HURRICANE VICTIMS, PEACE PROCESS
WHILE NICARAGUAN-AMERICANS ORGANIZE RELIEF FOR MITCH VICTIMS
VATICAN (CWNews.com) -- After his Angelus audience on Sunday,
November 8, Pope John Paul II made an appeal for a "generous" worldwide
response to the needs of people he Central America who are suffering in the
wake of a devastating hurricane there. He also renewed his calls for peace in
the world, especially in Congo and in the Middle East.
After speaking of the natural disaster that struck Honduras and Nicaragua,
the Pope told his audience, "While raising my prayer to God for the
numerous victims, I renew my invitation to generosity toward the survivors,
who are now confronting enormous problems."
"Alas there are other sad events, caused this time by the violence of men,
which threaten to undo the efforts of those who hope for a better world," the
Holy Father continued. He mentioned the recent bombing in Jerusalem,
evidently intended to set back the peace process. "The best remedy against
such terrorism," the Pope said, "is the application of the peace accords."
Finally, the Holy Father mentioned new armed attacks in regions of Congo.
These new military advances, he said, "leave the local populations in a
climate of total insecurity, causing damage to our religious personnel and the
works of the Catholic Church."
Meanwhile in Miami, native Nicaraguans who are now living
in the United States have organized a series of fundraising
efforts to help their former countrymen recover from the
damages caused by hurricane Mitch.
Especially in Miami, the activity among Nicaraguan groups
has been particularly intense during the past week, since
news reports carried a dramatic story of suffering in the
Central American nation. Parish halls have been converted
into warehouses, storing supplies for shipment to
Nicaragua. The city's harbors have been busy day and night,
as supplies come in from other cities, or head out for
The organization Nicaraguan Brotherhood said that
government aid would not be enough to help the hurricane
victims, and so "we are working, community to community, to
make sure they really get what they need." Setting aside the
political differences between many exiles and the government
in Managua, those involved in the fundraising efforts see
their work as a service to their former neighbors. As one
volunteer pointed out simply: "First and foremost, we are
Supreme Court rules School Vouchers do not violate separation of Church and state issue
Many suspect Milwaukee's Catholic schools will be swarmed with applications from parents next week on the heels of the Supreme Court's decision to uphold the School Vouchers Law passed in Wisconsin. Everything had been in limbo pending an appeal by the ACLU who had challenged the law. Now that challenge has been defeated and 15,000 vouchers valued at $5,000 apiece will be distributed to students who are eligible under the guidelines set down. The vote was 8-1 against allowing the ACLU to challenge and, hopefully, is an omen of good things to come for other states in both granting school vouchers for parochial schools to boost the coffers of much needed parish schools but also to improve education on all levels in both public and private schools. For more, click on Vouching for the Vouchers.
SUPREME COURT ALLOWS WISCONSIN SCHOOL VOUCHERS
WASHINGTON, DC (CWNews.com) - The US Supreme Court on
Monday turned away a challenge to a Wisconsin law that
allows parents to use tax vouchers to send their children
to the school of their choice, including church schools.
The high court voted 8-1, with no explanatory comment, to
refuse to hear a challenge to the law that contended it
violated the separation of church and state because
religious schools were allowed to take part. The program
allows as many as 15,000 eligible students in Milwaukee to
attend the school of their choice with tuition vouchers
good for up to $5,000 per year.
The law had been challenged by the American Civil Liberties
Union, Americans United for Separation of Church and State,
People for the American Way, the NAACP, and teachers'
unions. Some supports of the law were also disappointed
that the court elected not hear the case and "resolve the
constitutionality of parental choice."
Pope's right hand man elevated higher as Cardinal Ratzinger becomes vice-dean of the College of Cardinals
One of the Holy Father's most trusted lieutenants Cardinal Josef Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, was granted another honor last Friday when the six Cardinal bishops elected the German prelate as vice-dean of the College of Cardinals, the second-in charge of the conclave. Within four years he could very well become dean of the College and be the one to govern the conclave in the event the Holy Father should die. Cardinal Ratzinger's selection fills a void left after the death of Cardinal Agostino Casarol who passed away on June 9. For more, click on New vice-dean.
RATZINGER NAMED VICE-DEAN OF COLLEGE OF CARDINALS
VATICAN (CWNews.com) -- Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, the prefect of the
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, has been elected vice-dean of the
College of Cardinals. He succeeds Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, who died on
Cardinal Ratzinger was elected to his new post on November 6 by the six
cardinal-bishops. (The College of Cardinals is divided into cardinal-bishops,
cardinal-priests, and cardinal-deacons.) The vice-dean replaces the dean of
the College of Cardinals (currently Cardinal Bernardin Gantin) if the latter is
unable to perform his functions.
Upon the death of a pope, the cardinal known as the camerlengo (currently
Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo) takes charge of Vatican affairs until a
new pope is elected. But it is the dean of the College who calls together the
conclave, presides over the elections in the Sistine Chapel, and asks the
elected candidate if he will accept the office and which name he will choose.
In his motu proprio of November 1970, governing the process of papal
elections, Pope Paul VI stipulated that the vice-dean should replace the dean
if the dean has reached the age of 80 at the time of the conclave. Cardinal
Gantin is now 76 years old, while Cardinal Ratzinger will be 72 in April.
The other 4 cardinal-bishops, named for life, are Cardinals Paolo Bertoli,
Roger Etchegaray, Angelo Sodano, and Lucas Moreira Neves-- the last having
been named to replace Cardinal Eduardo Pironio upon his death last year.
Church gives strong attention to preserving Pro-Life in Columbia as Pope urges family values while anti-family organizations try to squeeze Operation Rescue
The bishops of Columbia have united to issue a strong plea to the legislatures to preserve the pro-life referendum by defeating new bills that would give the culture of death an inroad in this highly Catholic country where, to this point there are strong laws against abortion, euthanasia and infanticide. But liberals are trying their best to lobby to have these measures passed that would weaken the pro-life platform. The Holy Father reminded the new Columbian Ambassador to the Holy See when he met with him Saturday, urging him to uphold family traditions and curb the violence and right the unbalanced system where the poor just get poorer. In addition to all the above, more bad news for the pro-life movement when Randolph Terry former head of Operation Rescue announced he has filed bankruptcy to stave off the vultures from Planned Parenthood and Women's Lib movements who are circling in bloodthirsty attempts to suck the man and his non-profit organization dry. For more, click on Columbia and the Sanctity of Life
COLOMBIA BISHOPS URGE LAWMAKERS NOT TO WEAKEN PRO-LIFE LAWS AS
POPE URGES IN EQUALITY, DIALOGUE IN COLOMBIA WHILE PRO-LIFE
ORGANIZATION OPERATION RESCUE HEAD DECLARES BANKRUPTCY
BOGOTA (CWNews.com) - The Catholic Church bishops of
Colombia have asked pro-life legislators not to accept new
proposals which could weaken the penalties for abortion,
infanticide, and euthanasia.
Bishop Fernando Sabogal, an auxiliary in Bogota, testified
before a legislative committee which is considering
proposed changes in the country's penal code. He observed
that the changes would provide lighter sentences for
abortion in cases involving rape or severe malformation of
the fetus, as well as for euthanasia, mercy killing, and
"For the Church this "mercy killing" is unacceptable, as is
abortion in all circumstances," Bishop Sabogal said,
"because the 'problem' which they seek to eliminate is life
itself--and that, of course, is contrary to the law of God."
The bishop argued that rather than easing criminal penalties
for such offenses, the legislature should actually make the
law stricter, in order to counteract the current climate of
indifference toward the dignity of human life. He also
expressed the fear that, if criminal penalties are eased in
some cases, the way might be cleared for elimination of all
criminal sanctions, and thus for the effective legalization
of abortion and euthanasia.
Bishop Sabogal reminded the legislators that they are not
obliged to approve the proposed changes in the criminal
code, and urged them to make an independent judgment,
mindful of the threats to human life.
Regarding the situation in Columbia, Pope John Paul II condemned the terrorism which has
struck innocent victims in that country, including several missionaries and
Church workers as he greeted the new ambassador to the Holy See from Columbia.
Speaking to Guillermo Leon Escobar-Herran, who presented his diplomatic
credentials on November 7, the Pope argued that "social disequalibrium"
caused by "marked discrepancies in the distribution of material resources"
had contributed to the growth of violence in Colombia. He urged a process of
"national reconciliation" based on "the art of dialogue."
The Pope expressed his outrage over the recent acts of violence by terrorist
groups seeking to overthrow the government, as well as the ugly phenomena
of drug traffic, abandoned children, and family breakdown.
Meanwhile, in Syracuse, New York the former head of
Operation Rescue filed for bankruptcy protection on Friday,
citing enormous debts owed to pro-abortion groups and
abortion clinics after a civil judgement against him.
Randall Terry said in his Bankruptcy Court filing he has
$1.7 million in debts, including $1.6 million he has been
ordered to pay to the National Organization for Women and
Planned Parenthood. "I cannot in good conscience permit the
National Organization of Women, Planned Parenthood, and
others who have profited from abortion to harass my wife
and family, and possibly get money from me to continue
their crusade against unborn life," he said.
For more headlines and articles, we suggest you go to the Catholic World News site. CWN is not affiliated with the Daily CATHOLIC but provides this service via e-mail to the Daily CATHOLIC Monday through Friday.
Click here to return to SECTION ONE or click here to return to the graphics front page of this issue.
November 10, 1998 volume 9, no. 220 DAILY CATHOLIC