February 22, 2001
volume 12, no. 53

44 Cardinals elevated during Pope's 8th Consistory

    At the consistory of February 21, 2001, Pope John Paul II has created 42 new members of the College of Cardinals.

    Also, two other prelates received the cardinal's red hat for the first time, although they became cardinals "in pectore"-- that is, secretly-- in 1998. These newly recognized cardinals had already assumed all the privileges fo their rank when the Holy Father disclosed their identities on January 28. They are:

  • Cardinal Marian Jaworski of the Latin-rite Archdiocese of Lviv, Ukraine
  • Cardinal Janis Pujats of Riga, Latvia.

    The 42 new members of the College of Cardinals, who assumed their new rank on Wednesday, are, in alphabetical order:

  • Cardinal Geraldo Majella Agnelo, Archbishop of Sao Salvador de Bahia Brazil
  • Cardninal Bernard Arge, Archbishop of Abidjan, Ivory Coast
  • Cardninal Audrys Juozas Backis, Archbishop of Vilnius, Lithuania
  • Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Cardinal Louis-Marie Bille, Archbishop of Lyon, France
  • Cardinal Agostino Cacciavillan, president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See
  • Cardinal Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne, Archbishop of Lima, Peru
  • Cardinal Desmond Connell, Archbishop of Dublin, Ireland
  • Cardinal Johannes Joachim Degenhardt, Archbishop of Paderborn, Germany
  • Cardinal Ivan Dias, Archbishop of Bombay, India
  • Cardinal Avery Dulles, SJ, Professor, Fordham, University
  • Cardinal Edward Egan, Archbishop of New York, USA
  • Cardinal Francisco Javier Errazuris Ossa, Archbishop of Santiago, Chile
  • Cardinal Stephanos Ghattas of Alexandria, Egypt, Patriarch of the Coptic Catholic Church
  • Cardinal Antonio Jose Gonzales Zumarraga, Archbishop of Quito, Ecuador
  • Cardinal Zenon Grocholewski Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education
  • Cardinal Jean Honoré, Archbishop emeritus of Archdiocese of Tours, France
  • Cardinal Claudio Hummes, Archbishop of Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • Cardinal Lubomyr Husar, Archbishop of Lviv, Ukraine: the major see of the Ukrainian Catholic Church
  • Cardinal Walter Kasper, Secretary of the Congregation for Christian Unity
  • Cardinal Karl Lehmann, Bishop of Mainz, Germany
  • Cardinal Francisco Alvarez Martinez, Archbishop of Toledo, Spain
  • Cardinal Theodore McCarrick, Archbishop of Washington, DC, USA
  • Cardinal Jorge Maria Mejia, the Vatican archivist and librarian
  • Cardinal Ignace Moussa I Daoud, Prefect of the Congregation for the Eastern Churches
  • Cormac Murphy-O'Connor, Archbishop of Westminster, Great Britain
  • Cardinal Wilfrid Fox Napier, Archbishop of Durban, South Africa
  • Cardinal Francis-Xavier Nguyen Van Thuan, President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
  • Cardinal Severino Poletto, Archbishop of Turin, Italy
  • Cardinal José da Cruz Policarpo Patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal
  • Cardinal Mario Francesco Pompedda, Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
  • Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Re, Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops
  • Cardinal Oscar Andres Rodrigues Maradiaga, Archbishop of Tegucigalpa, Honduras
  • Cardinal Pedro Rubiano Saenz, Archbishop of Bogota, Colombia
  • Cardinal José Saraiva Martins, Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
  • Cardinal Leo Scheffczyk
  • Cardinal Sergio Sebastiani, President of the Prefecture for Economic Affairs of the Holy See
  • Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, Secretary General of the committee that coordinated the Jubilee
  • Cardinal Julia Terrazas Sandoval, Archbishop of Santa Cruz, Bolivia
  • Cardinal Roberto Tucci, SJ
  • Cardinal Ignacio Antonio Velasco Garcia, Archbishop of Caracas, Venezuela
  • Cardinal Varkey Vithayathil, Archbishop of Ernaklum-Angamalay, India: major see of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church.

    With three exceptions-- Cardinals Dulles, Scheffczyk, and Tucci-- all of these prelates were bishops before Pope John Paul II announced that they would become cardinals. (In fact all but two Germans, Cardinals Kasper and Lehmann, ranked as archbishops.) In accordance with norms established by Pope John XXIII, stipulating that all cardinals must be bishops, Msgr. Scheffczyk and Fathers Dulles and Tucci were consecrated as bishops before the consistory.

    Two of the new cardinals, Patriarchs Stephanos Ghattos and Ignace Moussa Dauod, already ranked as patriarchs before the consistory. (Patriarch Ignace Moussa I Dauod, who had been head of the Syrian Catholic Church, resigned that title in order to accept his new post as prefect of the Vatican's Congregation for the Eastern Churches; but Pope John Paul announced that the new prefect would retain his old title of Patriarch.) The status of an Eastern patriarch in the College of Cardinals is unusual. The Pope, among his titles, is Patriarch of the Roman Church, whereas a patriarch heads another body within the Catholic Church-- in the case of Patriarch Stephanos Ghattos, for instance, the Coptic Catholic Church.

    Two other new cardinals, although they do not rank as patriarchs, also are the leading prelates of Eastern-rite bodies within the Catholic Church. Cardinal Lubomyr Husar enjoys that status as the Urkainian-rite Archbishop of Lviv, the major archdiocese of the Ukrainian Catholic Church; Cardinal Varkey Vithayathil occupies a similar post as Archbishop of Ernaklum-Angamalay, India: the major archdiocese of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church.

    Counting the new members, the College of Cardinals now has 184 members, of whom 134 are under the age of 80 and thus eligible to vote in a papal conclave.

    The high point of the ceremony came when, after swearing fidelity to the Pope and his successors, the new cardinals came forward to receive their red hats. Each candidate knelt before the Pope, who placed the hat on his head.

    Each new cardinal also received a "bull" confirming his membership in the College of Cardinals, and assigning him to a titular parish in the Diocese of Rome. (The cardinals thus become members of the clergy of Rome, and eligible to vote in the election of a Bishop of Rome: the Pope.)

    Smiling throughout this part of the ceremony-- which lasted nearly an hour- - Pope John Paul was particularly warm in greeting Cardinal Re. He also gave a special embrace to Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, who had served as secretary for the special Vatican committee coordinating the Jubilee celebration.

    Among the new cardinals, three stood out because they were not wearing the same red robes as the others. They were Eastern prelates, wearing the vestments of their own churches: Patriarch Ignace Moussa I Daoud, the current prefect of the Congregation for Eastern Churches and former Patriarch of Antioch for the Syrian Catholic Church; Patriarch Stephanos II Ghattos of Alexandria, the head of the Coptic Catholic Church; and Major Archbishop Lubomyr Husar of Lviv, the head of the Ukrainian Catholic Church.

    After the Pope had finished conferring the red hats on the new cardinals, the 44 new members of the College of Cardinals joined the 80 other members present for the ceremony, standing in front of St. Peter's, as the crowd signified approval with hearty applause.

    In his discourse to the new cardinals, Pope John Paul emphasized that "the Church is not guided by the calculus of human power… but by the constant witness of the apostles, martyrs, and saints." He urged them to be mindful of the injunction offered by Jesus in the Gospel of St. Mark, that the greatest among them would be the one who served the others. For cardinals, the Pontiff said, "witness can mean the heroism that entails a complete gift of self to God and one's brothers." Such heroism, he added, is particularly necessary today.

    Along with the 35,000 faithful who gathered in St. Peter's Square for the ceremony, there were 250 journalists accredited by the Vatican for the event, and 40 photographers. The ceremony was broadcast by 254 electronic media outlets:180 radio and 74 television stations.

    After the ceremony, the new cardinals received courtesy calls from friends and relatives in public receptions. For those receptions, the cardinals were assigned to places in two different buildings: the Paul VI auditorium or the first floor of the apostolic palace.

February 22, 2001
volume 12, no. 53
News from ROME
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