Death of Saint Usthazanes, abbot who was beheaded along with twelve other martyred monks at Ishtar, Persia.
The first crusaders arrive in Antioch from Constantinople during the First Crusade.
Death of Pope Urban III, 172nd successor of Peter whose pontificate lasted two years. Born Umberto Crivelli in Milan, he was elected on December 1, 1185. He was elected in Verona and there he set up his papal court. As a cardinal he had planned the Lombard League. He stood up firmly against the arrogance of Frederick Barbarossa, German emperor and died of sorrow when the Saracens took possession of Jerusalem.
Rather than risking the lives of his people and in order to prevent the shedding of blood, Pope Pius IX surrendered the city of Rome to King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia. The surrender virtually ended the Papal States for the Pope was no longer allowed to govern Rome, but he was allowed to retain St. Peter's and the Vatican Palace and the Italian government agreed to pay him over three million lire a year, but Pius refused to accept the monies under any condition. In effect Vatican City was born.
Pope Pius XII issues his first encyclical on the unity of human society entitled Summi Pontificatus.