Cardinal Umberto Crivelli, the prelate who had planned the "Lombard League" is chosen the 172nd successor of Peter and takes the name Pope Urban III. This Milan-born pontiff would serve until October 20, 1187. He was elected in Verona and there he set up his papal court. He stood up firmly against the arrogance of Frederick Barbarossa and died of sorrow when the Saracens took possession of his beloved Jerusalem.
Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini becomes Pope Nicholas III, the 188th in the line of Peter. His pontificate would last three years until August 22, 1280. He was the first sovereign pontiff to reside permanently in the Vatican and it was Nicholas who began laying out the famous papal gardens. He also sent missionaries to convert the Tartar kings.
Pope Clement XIII issues his fourth encyclical Christianae reipublicae which warns of the grave dangers of anti-Christian writings so prevalent during that time, especially in France.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, first Catholic president of the United States, is laid to rest in Arlington Cemetary after an internationally televised funeral Mass.