Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere is elected the 216th successor of Peter, taking the name Pope Julius II. His pontificate would last ten years. It was he who commissioned Italian masters Michelangelo and Raphael to contribute to the art of the Vatican and St. Peter's which was completed during his reign. He would also convene the 18th Ecumenical Council in hopes of stemming revolt from many who questioned the Church. As we know it did not work and the schism became a reality during the papacy of his successor Pope Leo X.
The first painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo is opened to the public by Pope Julius II.
Blessed Padre Junipero Serra founds Mission San Juan Capistrano on the shores of the mighty Pacific ocean in Southern California.
Pope Pius VI elevates Father John Carroll to Bishop, appointing him as head of the Diocese of Baltimore. Thus the first See in the United States is established and the hierarchy of the Church begins in the new land just thirteen years old. The boundaries of the diocese where only 30,000 Catholics belong stretches from Maine to Georgia, from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River.
Pope Leo XIII issues his 16th encyclical Immortale Dei on the Christian constitution of states.
Pope Benedict XV publishes his first encyclical Ad beatissimi Apostolorum which was an appeal for peace in the face of World War I.
Pope Pius XII issues his second encyclical Sertum laetitiae directed to the United States bishops on the 150th anniversary of the hierarchy in the USA in 1789
Pope Pius XII officially proclaims the Dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven. Though it was long a teaching of the Church, it became a dogmatic definition by Pius' pronouncement on this date fifty years ago.
Pope Pius XII releases his 34th encyclical Laetamur admodum beseeching peace in Poland, Hungary and the mideast through prayer.