March 31, 2004
vol 15, no. 91

The Disciplines of Lent
    A Comparison of the Propers of the Traditional Latin Mass and the Novus Ordo

    by Kevin M. Tierney

      Editor's Note: This series on the Propers of the Mass features the apologetics of Kevin M. Tierney. Helping Kevin launch this project was Jacob Michael, but now that it is up and running Jacob, with a heavier work-load and more in demand on other necessary projects, has turned it over to Kevin full-time. We are confident Kevin will do an excellent job in this special feature simply called "Lex Orandi, Lex Credendi" which, of course, translated means roughly how one prays is how one believes. As you can see the differences between the two are as clear as black and white. One, the Latin Mass is full and reverent, the Novus Ordo sterile and bland. It needs innovation and novelty to spice things up. The Latin Mass merely depends on the Divine. This series will compare the Propers of the synthetic Novus Ordo with the absolute Propers of the Traditional Latin Mass to show all that the NOM comes up far, far inferior, if not worse. Many might place the blame on the venom of the vernacular, but we all know what vipers injected this poison. It must be sucked out and spit out forever. Hopefully this series will give readers motivation to expedite that process in the counter-revolution dedicated to taking back the Mystical Body of Christ for Christ! We continue with the sixth installment of the Disciplines of Lent:


    We now arrive in the liturgical year at Passion Sunday, recalling the last year of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. When reading the Gospel, one becomes more and more aware of the brewing confrontation between Christ and the Jewish High Priests, which lead up to His betrayal and His crucifixion. Likewise, we faithful must be reminded of our own unworthiness to participate in such a glorious event. While continuing our fasts, we must be reminded that without the power of the cross, we deserve just punishment for our sins.

    Indeed, the next two weeks before the Glorious Resurrection of Our Lord is a time where negative theology (the idea that we are sinners in need of Christ for salvation) should be heavily emphasized, since in the end, our sins make us culpable in Christ's death. As we have explored the deficiencies in the Novus Ordo in regards to negative theology, it should come as absolutely no surprise which liturgy better presents what the faithful need to hear. Yet at times, this must be continually stressed, if we are to demonstrate without a doubt the Novus Ordo's inherent inferiority. It is not simply in the way it is celebrated that makes the New Mass absolutely inferior to the Traditional Mass, but the prayers themselves speak of this profound inferiority. Let us examine them.

    As is the custom in this series, The Traditional Mass will be marked by TM and both in Latin (in blue type) and English (in black type), the Novus Ordo Missae by NOM and in maroon type, as in marooned by synthetic novelty)

    The Introits are the same for both liturgies, Psalm 42(or 43 for the Novus Ordo), the prayer asking God to give us justice and to distinguish us apart from those who are ungodly. Incidentally Psalm 42, the Judica me is the prayer said every day in all Low Masses of the Traditional Latin Mass during the Prayers at the foot of the Altar, while in the Novus Ordo it is reserved only for this Sunday. Because both Introits are the same, we will move right on to the Collect where you will see very clearly how any similarity ceases.

Quæsumus, omnípotens Deus, famíliam tuam propítius réspice: † ut, te largiénte, regátur in córpore; et, te servánte, custodiátur in mente. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, Qui Tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus,
Per omnia saecula saeculorum.
R. Amen.
Look down in mercy, we beseech Thee, O Lord, upon Thy family; by Thy governance may we be outwardly protected in body; by Thy favor may we be inwardly strengthened in heart and mind. Through Jesus Christ our Lord, Who liveth and reigneth with Thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God
Forever and ever.

    "Father, help us to be like Christ your Son, who loved the world and died for our salvation. Inspire us by his love, guide us by his example, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen." (NOM, Opening Prayer)

    Even at the beginning of the prayer there is a huge difference. In the collect of the Traditional Rite, it is stressed that the prayer is for God's family, the Church. This is a reinforcement of the idea that if you are to be a part of God's family, you must be part of the Catholic Church, a doctrine that has certainly fallen out of vogue in the minds of theologians and "liturgical experts" of the past 40 years. Since the advent of the "anonymous Christian" one is part of God's family, even if he doesn't know it. While of course nothing the Novus Ordo says in the Opening Prayer is necessarily false, we must remember again why this series is being written: To show that while nothing false is said, it omits many problematic issues for Non-Catholics and modern men. The idea that the Catholic Church alone is God's family is not inclusive, and hence, many reason modern men do not like exclusivity and the idea that not all division is bad. The Catholic Church is rightly divided from the errors of the heretics. In fact, during Passiontide a second collect is added and it is particularly to pray for protection against the persecutors of Holy Mother Church: "We beseech Thee, O Lord, mercifully to receive the prayers of Thy Church : that, all adversity and error being destroyed, she may serve Thee in security and freedom. Through our Lord..."

    The Traditional Proper also covers something that the Novus Ordo consistently goes out of its way to avoid, the issue of temporal adversities, and that God may heal us of them, and protect them. Many today paint an issue of God that God is not concerned with the temporal, but only the eternal. While our ultimate goal is to achieve that life which is eternal, a right ordering of one's temporal life can help to achieve this goal. God, realizing this, has consistently told His people to turn to Him for whatever they need in order to live a right and just life on Earth, and He shall help them. Since this is downplayed in the Novus Ordo (That God helps us in temporal adversity) the image can be given that God is not a strong part of our everyday life. If we do not need to worry about temporal adversities, we really don't need to call upon God for that much now, do we? One can see these small changes leading towards profound impact.

EPISTLE:   Hebrews 9: 11-15

Léctio Epístolæ beáti Pauli Apóstoli ad Hebræos. Fratres: Christus assístens póntifex futurórum bonórum, per ámplius et perféctius tabernáculum non manufáctum, id est, non hujus creatiónis: neque per sánguinem hircórum aut vitulórum, sed per próprium sánguinem introívit semel in Sancta, ætérna redemptióne invénta. Si enim sanguis hircórum, et taurórum, et cinis vítulæ aspérsus, inquinátos sanctíficat ad emundatiónem carnis: quanto magis sanguis Christi, qui per Spíritum Sanctum semetípsum óbtulit immaculátum Deo, emundábit consciéntiam nostram ab opéribus mórtuis, ad serviéndum Deo vivénti? Et ídeo novi testaménti mediátor est: ut morte intercedénte, in redemptiónem eárum prævaricatiónum, quæ erant sub prióri testaménto, repromissiónem accípiant, qui vocáti sunt ætérnæ hæreditátis: in Christo Jesu Dómino nostro.
Deo Gratias.

A reading from the Epistle of the blessed Apostle Paul to the Hebrews. Brethren: Christ being come, a High Priest of the good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, neither by the blood of goats or of calves, but by His own blood, entered once into the Holies, having obtained eternal redemption. For if the blood of goats and of oxen, and the ashes of an heifer being sprinkled, sanctify such as are defiled, to the cleansing of the flesh, how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the Holy Ghost, offered Himself without spot to God, cleanse our conscience from dead works, to serve the living God? And therefore He is the Mediator of the New Testament; that by means of His death, for the redemption of those transgressions which were under the former Testament; they that are called may receive the promise of eternal inheritance; in Christ Jesus our Lord.
Thanks be to God.

    "Thus says the LORD, who opens a way in the sea and a path in the mighty waters, who leads out chariots and horsemen, a powerful army, till they lie prostrate together, never to rise, snuffed out and quenched like a wick. Remember not the events of the past, the things of long ago consider not; see, I am doing something new! Now it springs forth, do you not perceive it? In the desert I make a way, in the wasteland, rivers. Wild beasts honor me, jackals and ostriches, for I put water in the desert and rivers in the wasteland for my chosen people to drink, the people whom I formed for myself, that they might announce my praise." (NOM, First Reading IS 43:16-21, verse 18 may be omitted)

    As we begin to focus on the end of Christ's earthly life, culminating in his crucifixion, both liturgies focus on God establishing things anew. Christ, through His death on the cross, brings about a New Covenant. The problems begin again when we look at what is omitted in the Novus Ordo, where one looks at what may be omitted. For today's omission, the fact that God will do something new, and make a river in the desert is what we can get rid of. The second part of this verse smacks of the supernatural, a miracle, which as we have demonstrated before, the majority of times a miracle is mentioned in the Scriptural readings, it is optional to talk about it. There is great theological significance in this one passage. Right after God talks about making things new, He tells the people that it has sprung forth, and asks them if they perceive it. This question is asked assuming some (if not many) will not see it. There are those who will not see this, and hence, will not partake in its benefits. Yet the offer was originally given to them. If one notices a parallel between this prophesy and the future actions of the corrupt Jewish high priests, one is paying attention, and should be commended.

    The idea that Jews must be converted to Catholicism is something that isn't really talked about today. The dogma has not been officially denied, it's just been emphasized far less. Many believe that the Old way is still in force for the Jew. Even when the Novus Ordo covers an important passage, the verse they may take out destroys the importance of the passage.

    Comparing to the Traditional Epistle reading, this becomes clearer. The Traditional Reading talks about Christ being the new way that was prophesized in Scripture. It refutes the notion of going back to the Old way simply because there is nothing to go back to. Christ is the High Priest, and He is the one whose offering is accepted by God. The offerings under the Old Covenant had some benefit, yet the blood of Christ, Who sacrificed Himself, has infinite more benefit. The Epistle to the Hebrews is a very hard epistle for those who push that salvation is possible outside of the New Covenant. When focusing on the last year of Our Lord's life, this is a good passage to focus on. This is one of the most effective arguments against forsaking Christ and returning to our Old Sinful ways. There is nothing to go back to for the Christian who knows Christ is "the Truth, the Way and the Life."

GRADUAL    Psalm 142: 9, 10; Psalm 17: 48-49

Eripe me, Dómine, de inimícis meis: doce me fácere voluntátem tuam. V. Liberátor meus, Dómine, de géntibus iracúndis: ab insurgéntibus in me exaltábis me: a viro iníquo erípies me.

Deliver me from my enemies, O Lord: teach me to do Thy will. V. Thou art my deliverer, O Lord, from the angry nations: Thou wilt lift me up above them that rise up against me: from the unjust man Thou wilt deliver me.

TRACT   : Psalm 128: 1-4

Sæpe expugnavérunt me a juventúte mea. Dicat nunc Israël: sæpe expugnavérunt me a juventúte mea. Etenim non potuérunt mihi: supra dorsum meum fabricavérunt peccatóres. Prolongavérunt iniquitátes suas: Dóminus justus concídet cervíces peccatórum.

Often have they fought against me from my youth. Let Israel now say: Often have they fought against me from my youth. But they could not prevail over me: the wicked have wrought upon my back. They have lengthened their iniquities: the Lord, Who is just, will cut the necks of sinners.

    R. (3) The Lord has done great things for us; we are filled with joy.
    When the LORD brought back the captives of Zion, we were like men dreaming.
    Then our mouth was filled with laughter, and our tongue with rejoicing.
    R. The Lord has done great things for us; we are filled with joy.
    Then they said among the nations, "The LORD has done great things for them."
    The LORD has done great things for us; we are glad indeed.
    R. The Lord has done great things for us; we are filled with joy. Restore our fortunes, O LORD, like the torrents in the southern desert.
    Those that sow in tears shall reap rejoicing.
    R. The Lord has done great things for us; we are filled with joy.
    Although they go forth weeping, carrying the seed to be sown, They shall come back rejoicing, carrying their sheaves.
    R. The Lord has done great things for us; we are filled with joy.
    (NOM, Responsorial Psalm)

    While the Gradual of the Traditional Latin Mass focuses on God delivering us from our enemies, the Novus Ordo speaks of wondrous things the Lord has done. It mentions leading the Jews out of captivity, but doesn't mention God came against the Egyptians. This would be an example of God intervening in temporal situations, which the Gradual calls for God to do. The Novus Ordo shifts the emphasis, once again bringing about the problem we noted before. The Tract continues this emphasis on temporal issues, yet also notes that the temporal issues have eternal consequences. This of course is omitted in the Novus Ordo. Focusing too much on the "end game" can be a bad thing, as we do not prepare ourselves for that end game. The second reading in the Novus Ordo continues this problem, as it is possible to omit the verse St. Paul speaks of in Philippians 3:8-14 that mentions St. Paul declaring what was given as a gain he gave up for the sake of Christ, an example of those things temporal having eternal ramifications.

GOSPEL:    John 8: 46-59
Sequentia sancti Evangelii secundum Joannem.

In illo témpore: Dicébat Jesus turbis Judæórum: "Quis ex vobis árguet me de peccáto? Si veritátem dico vobis, quare non créditis mihi? Qui ex Deo est, verba Dei audit. Proptérea vos non audítis, quia ex Deo non estis." Respondérunt ergo Judæi, et dixérunt ei: Nonne bene dícimus nos, quia Samaritánus es tu, et dæmónium habes? Respóndit Jesus: "Ego dæmónium non hábeo: sed honorífico Patrem meum, et vos inhonorástis me. Ego autem non quæro glóriam meam: est qui quærat, et júdicet. Amen, amen dico vobis: si quis sermónem meum serváverit, mortem non vidébit in ætérnum." Dixérunt ergo Judæi: Nunc cognóvimus quia dæmónium habes. Abraham mórtuus est, et prophétæ: et tu dicis: Si quis sermónem meum serváverit, non gustábit mortem in ætérnum. Numquid tu major es patre nostro Abraham, qui mórtuus est? et prophétæ mórtui sunt. Quem teípsum facis? Respóndit Jesus: "Si ego glorífico meípsum, glória mea nihil est: est Pater meus, qui gloríficat me, quem vos dícitis quia Deus vester est, et non cognovístis eum: ego autem novi eum: et si díxero quia non scio eum, ero símilis vobis, mendax. Sed scio eum, et sermónem ejus servo. Abraham pater vester exsultávit ut vidéret diem meum: vidit, et gavísus est." Dixérunt ergo Judæi ad eum: Quinquagínta annos nondum habes, et Abraham vidísti? Dixit eis Jesus: "Amen, amen dico vobis, ántequam Abraham fíeret, ego sum." Tulérunt ergo lápides, ut jácerent in eum: Jesus autem abscóndit se, et exívit de templo.
Laus tibi, Christi

The continuation of the holy Gospel according to John.
At that time, Jesus said to the multitudes of the Jews: "Which of you shall convince Me of sin? If I say the truth to you, why do you not believe Me? He that is of God, heareth the words of God. Therefore you hear them not, because you are not of God." The Jews therefore answered, and said to Him: Do not we say well, that Thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil? Jesus answered: "I have not a devil, but I honor My Father, and you have dishonoured Me. But I seek not My own glory; there is One that seeketh and judgeth. Amen, amen, I say to you, If any man keep My word, he shall not see death for ever." The Jews therefore said: Now we know that Thou hast a devil. Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and Thou sayest: If any man keep My word, he shall not taste death for ever. Art Thou greater than our father Abraham, who is dead? and the prophets are dead. Whom dost Thou make Thyself? Jesus answered: "If I glorify Myself, My glory is nothing. It is My Father that glorifieth Me, of Whom you say that He is your God. And you have not known Him; but I know Him. And if I shall say that I know Him not, I shall be like to you, a liar. But I do know Him, and do keep his word. Abraham your father rejoiced that he might see My day: he saw it, and was glad." The Jews therefore said to Him: Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast Thou seen Abraham? Jesus said to them: "Amen, amen, I say to you, before Abraham was made, I AM." They took up stones therefore to cast at Him; but Jesus hid Himself, and went out of the temple.

    Jesus went to the Mount of Olives. But early in the morning he arrived again in the temple area, and all the people started coming to him, and he sat down and taught them. Then the scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman who had been caught in adultery and made her stand in the middle. They said to him, "Teacher, this woman was caught in the very act of committing adultery. Now in the law, Moses commanded us to stone such women. So what do you say?" They said this to test him, so that they could have some charge to bring against him. Jesus bent down and began to write on the ground with his finger. But when they continued asking him, he straightened up and said to them, "Let the one among you who is without sin be the first to throw a stone at her." Again he bent down and wrote on the ground. And in response, they went away one by one, beginning with the elders. So he was left alone with the woman before him. Then Jesus straightened up and said to her, "Woman, where are they? Has no one condemned you?" She replied, "No one, sir." Then Jesus said, "Neither do I condemn you. Go, and from now on do not sin any more." (NOM, Gospel, John 8:1-11, Verse 7 may be omitted)

    The Traditional Gospel focuses on the hypocrisy of the Jewish leaders, that they claim to be acting in God's name, but cannot see the Messiah He promised them right before their very eyes. Furthermore, they can't even see God incarnate right before them. They believe that the man Who is God incarnate before them is a devil. The Jews of Christ's time had become so blinded in their sin, God appears before them, and they call Him a devil. This is probably the most serious sin, to call good evil, and evil good, and to justify why you are doing this. This is what ultimately set in motion the plan to get rid of Jesus. While He had made some extravagant claims before, He now equated Himself with the Almighty, by using the name "I Am" to describe Himself. That is the name of the Almighty Himself.

    This is replaced in the Novus Ordo by another passage of John's Gospel which outlines the absolute hypocrisy of the Jews. On second thought, it may outline their hypocrisy, as the verse which is optional is the famous saying of Christ "let he who is without sin cast the first stone." Christ did this to show their absolute hypocrisy, that they were mired in sin, yet so judgmental of the sins of others. He also did this because the Pharisees were looking to trap Christ in a quandary, since the Law of Moses commanded a woman caught in adultery to be stoned. Many believe the writing in the sand Christ wrote were the sins of everyone else, sort of a "Let's not get started on your sins, because you're worse than she is." Christ shows His mercy over the uncompromising nature of the Law, foreshadowing what is to come in the New Covenant. Yet by choosing to omit the hypocrisy of the Jewish leaders here, the theological significance of the entire passage is leveled. The readings of the Novus Ordo, with their optional verses being omitted, do not clearly indicate that the Old has passed away, and the New is what we live in now. This only gives fuel to the anathema that the Jews wait for the Messiah is not in vain and that the Jews no longer need to convert.

OFFERTORY:    Psalm 118: 17, 107

Confitébor tibi Dómine in toto corde meo: retríbue servo tuo, vivam et custódiam sermónes tuos: vivífica me secúndum verbum tuum, Dómine.

I will confess to Thee, O Lord, with my whole heart: render to Thy servant, I shall live and keep Thy words: enliven me according to Thy word, O Lord.


Hæc múnera, quæsumus, Dómine, et víncula nostræ pravitátis absólvant, et tuæ nobis misericórdiæ dona concílient. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, Filius tuus Dominus noster, Qui Tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus,
Per omnia saecula saeculorum.
R. Amen.

May these gifts, we beseech Thee, O Lord, merit for us the loosening of the bonds of our sins, and draw down upon us Thy bounteous mercies. Through our Lord Jesus Christ Thy Son. Who liveth and reigneth with Thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God
Forever and ever.

    "Almighty God, may the sacrifice we offer take away the sins of those whom you enlighten with the Christian faith. We ask this in the name of Jesus the Lord. Amen." (NOM, Prayer over the Gifts)

    While the Novus Ordo talks of the sins being taken away, the Traditional Rite not only covers the same, but also talks about the bonds of those sins being loosed in the Secret. Why are those chains broken, because now that our sins have been cleansed, God's wrath is no longer set against us! This is again the problem the Novus Ordo continually has in it's prayer over the gifts, while it covers the expiatory work of Christ (taking away sins), it does not mention the cause of that effect, the propitiatory work of Christ (our bonds being loosed.) If those sins have been forgiven, then God remembers them no more, and His wraths against those sins are appeased. By choosing not to cover this aspect, one does not really talk about the very personal nature of God and the fact that we are accountable to Him for our sins, again, an aspect of negative theology, which, in the Novus Ordo has taken on a totally negative opinion rather than the true sense of negative as in negating sin. Here again this is stressed in the second secret for Passiontide in petition for protection against the enemies of the Church.

    Now let us move on towards the Prefaces. The reader will notice that during Lent, I did not cover the Prefaces, that being because the Preface of Lent was the standard being used for both. (The Novus Ordo has numerous optional prefaces, so for the sake of consistency I used one.) Now that we are Passion Sunday, for the Traditional Rite, the Preface of the Holy Cross is used. For the Novus Ordo, the Preface of the Power of the Cross is used.


Vere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare, nos Tibi semper, et ubique gratias agere : Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, aeterne Deus. Qui salutem humani generic in lingo Cruces constituisti : ut, unde mors oriebatur, inde vita resurgeret : et Qui in lingo vincebat, in lingo quoque vinceretur, per Christum Dominum nostrum. Per Quem majestatem tuam laudant angeli, adorant Dominationes, tremunt Potestates. Coeli, coelorumque Virtutes, ac beata Seraphim social exsultatione concelebrant. Cum quibus et nostras voces, ut admitti jubeas, deprecamur, supplici convessione dicentes:

It is truly meet and just, right and for our salvation, that we should at all times, and in all places, give thanks unto Thee, O holy Lord, Father almighty, everlasting God : Who didst establish the salvation of mankind on the tree of the Cross: that whence death came thence also life might arise again, and that he, Who overcame by the tree, by the tree also might be overcome: Through Christ our Lord. Through Whom the Angels praise Thy Majesty, the Dominations worship it, the Powers stand in awe. The Heavens and the Heavenly hosts together with the blessed Seraphim in triumphant chorus unite to celebrate it. Together with these we entreat Thee, that Thou mayest bid our voices also be admitted while we say with lowly praise:


    Father, all-powerful and ever-living God, we do well always and everywhere to give you thanks. The suffering and death of your Son brought life to the whole world, moving our hearts to praise your glory. The power of the cross reveals your judgment on this world and the kingship of Christ crucified. We praise you, Lord, with all the angels and saints in their song of joy: HOLY, HOLY, HOLY... (NOM, Preface).

    A blurring of the facts again occurs in the Novus Ordo. While the Preface of the Holy Cross mentions why the Cross itself was necessary (that whence death came thence also life might arise again), the Novus Ordo does not mention this. This again points to the exactness of the Traditional Rite, and the banality and ambiguity of the Novus Ordo. Nothing is false in either preface, yet one is far more exact. As Catholics with a legitimate choice for where to attend Mass, do we want the entire faith, or the watered down version, in effect a "Catholicism-lite," if even that? The differences are not too substantial in the remaining prayers, so they will only be listed for one to compare for themselves.

COMMUNION:   1 Corinthians 11: 24, 25

Hoc corpus, quod pro vobis tradétur: hic calix novi Testaménti est in meo sánguine, dicit Dóminus: hoc fácite, quotiescúmque súmitis, in meam commemoratiónem.

This is My Body which shall be delivered for you: this is the chalice of the New Testament in My Blood, saith the Lord: do this, as often as you receive it, in commemoration of Me.

    He who lives and believes in me will not die for ever, said the Lord. (John 11:26) (Communion Verse, NOM)

Adésto nobis Dómine Deus noster: et quos tuis mystériis recreásti, perpétuis defénde subsídiis. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum. Qui vivis et regnas in cum Deo Patri in unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus, unum Deum.
Per omnia saecula saeculorum.
R. Amen.

Draw near to us, O Lord our God, and with everlasting succour aid those whom by Thy sacrament Thou hast called to newness of life. Through our Lord Jesus Christ, Who livest and reignest, with God the Father, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God
For ever and ever.
R. Amen.

    "Lord, protect your people always, that they may be free from every evil and serve you with all their hearts. We ask this through Christ our Lord. Amen." (Prayer after Communion, NOM)

    In conclusion, for the readings of Passion Sunday, we see that little changes have huge impact. An omission in one area can either change, or make useless the lesson being imparted by a text. The texts in question in both liturgies talk about the superiority of the New Covenant to the Old Way, yet thanks to the options, if the options are employed, one does not really get that impression. This again leaves whether or not the Mass is reverent and has any meaning solely in the arbitrary hands of the priest who can decide to omit or not omit. Are we willing to take that risk? Since cutting corners has become so popular in these times, how many will see the difference? While it might be saving a minute or two overall, in truth by not omitting those pertinent passages it could be saving many souls. Whereas in the Traditional Latin Mass there are no options and everything is according to the Rubrics established, in the Novus Ordo its left to the discretion of the celebrant. No consistency there. Think about it. Would you rather have the quick and the superficial, or what is consistent and full of spiritual substance?

NEXT: Comparing the Propers of Lent: Palm Sunday

    March 31, 2004
    vol 15, no. 91
    Lex Orandi, Lex Credendi