The new cardinals will be consecrated at a consistory to be held on February 21, bringing to 123 the number of cardinals eligible to vote in a conclave to select the next pope. Among the bishops selected for the honor are Archbishop Francis George of Chicago, appointed to the archdiocese less than one year ago; Archbishop Christoph Schoenborn of Vienna, at 53 the youngest cardinal and editor of the new Catechism; and Archbishop Adam Kozlowiecki, an 86-year old missionary in Zambia and survivor of the Dachau concentration camp.
At least one or more of the cardinals named "in pectore" or "in the breast" -- meaning the name is known to few besides the Pope -- is believed to be from China which is suppressing Catholics who remain loyal to the Universal Church. Eight of the new cardinals are members of the Roman Curia or Vatican diplomatic service.
The Pope conceded after the consistory, there would be 123 members of the College of Cardinals eligible to vote in a conclave to select the next pope. (Cardinals over the age of 80 are not eligible to vote, although they may take part in the conclave's deliberations.) Under rules set forth by Pope Paul VI, the number of eligible cardinal-electors had been limited to 120. However, the Holy Father said that his new nominees deserved the honor, and thus he exercised his prerogative to set aside the rule.
There are 104 members of the College of Cardinals below the age of 80 today. Of the 20 named by the Pope to receive the honor in February, 17 are known to be eligible voters-- although one, Bishop Dino Monduzzi, the prefect of the papal household-- is seriously ill. One cardinal-designate, Archbishop Adam Kozlowiecki, a Polish-born missionary in Zambia, is already 86. Another, Archbishop Giovanni Cheli, the president of the Pontifical Council for Migrants, will celebrate his 80th birthday this coming October.
The Pope also named three new cardinals "in pectore"-- that is, without making their names public. A cardinal is usually named "in pectore" when the Pope believes that a public announcement would be damaging-- most often because of tense relations with the government of his country. It is widely believed that at least one of the cardinals named "in pectore" is from China.
The Pope had intended to name Archbishop Giuseppe Uhac, the secretary to the Congregation for Evangelization, to his list. But the archbishop died in Rome just before the announcement.
The youngest of the new cardinals will be Archbishop Christoph Schoenborn of Vienna, who was the general editor for the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Seven of the new nominees are Italian by birth; two are from the United States. The remaining nominees are from countries all over the globe.
Eight of the new cardinals are currently working in the Roman Curia or the Vatican diplomatic service. They are:- Archbishop Jorge Arturo Medina Estevez, the prefect of the
Congregation for Divine Worship;
- Archbishop Dario Castrillon Hoyos, the prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy;
- Archbishop Alberto Bovone, the pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints;
- Archbishop Lorenzo Antonetti, the pro-president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See;
- Archbishop Francis Stafford, the president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity;
- Archbishop Cheli;
- Archbishop Francesco Colasuonno, the apostolic nuncio to Italy;
- Bishop Manduzzi;
The other new cardinals, all currently serving as diocesan archbishop, are:
- Dionigi Tettamanzi of Genoa, Italy;
- Salvatore de Giorgi of Palermo, Italy;
- Antonio Rouco Varela of Madrid, Spain;
- Jean Balland of Lyon, France;
- Serafim Fernandez de Araujo of Bel Horizonte, Brazil;
- Norberto Rivera Carrera of Mexico City, Mexico;
- Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic of Toronto, Canada;
- Francis George of Chicago, USA;
- Polycarp Pengo of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania;
and - Paul Shan Kuo-Shi of Kaohsiung, Taiwan.