Alfonso XI, King of Castile, dies as a result of contracting the plague of the Black Death
Death of Pope Gregory XI, the last of the Avilon French Popes. Through the insistence of Saint Catherine of Siena Gregory returned the papal headquarters to Rome after a 75 year exile.
Juan Ponce de Leon discovers Florida, proclaiming it for Spain.
Start of the Scots' War of Independence from England.
Henry of Trastamara assassinates the King of Castile - Pedro at Montiel. Pedro was known as "the Cruel" because of his abuse of the Inquisition and he was the first known European monarch to be able to write fluently.
Gunpowder used for the first time in Europe by the Venetians against the Genoese in a battle of two Catholic cities over territories. This deeply troubled Pope Urban VI, the first Italian pontiff after a long line of French popes.
St. Mary's College officially opens its doors of higher learning in Winchester, England.
Birth of the Renaissance Franciscan monk from Firenze who was a master with the brush, Fra Bartolomeo.
Birth of the master painter and sculptor Raphael.
Jesuit priest Father Henry Garner is executed for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot in which King James I falsely accuses Catholics in England for not being loyal to the throne.
Death of Pope Stephen IX, born in Lorraine and known for raising the moral standards of the clergy and laity.
Death of English-born Saint Stephen Harding, abbott and reformer of the Cistercians. He is also remembered as tutor of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux.
Pope Innocent II greets returning Knights of the Templar from the Holy Lands during the crusades and declares they are an official independent unit within Holy Mother Church. Over the years this privilege would be abused and the Templars would be condemned.