Queen Theresa of Portugal gifts the Castle of Soure to the Knights Templars for their noble efforts in the crusades.
Crusaders of the Second Crusade make their entrance into Antioch
Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th in the line of Peter. He would go on to be known as the "canonizer" for elevating St. Francis, St. Dominic, and St. Anthony. He was also called the "excommunicator" for taking the bold move of placing Frederick II under interdiction. It was Gregory who instituted the "Holy Inquisition."
The German Emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen enters Jerusalem causing the Archbishop of Caesarea to place an inderdict on the Holy City at Gregory's command.
On a decree by Pope Alexander IV, who canonized Saint Clare, the Church allows the works of Aristotle to be taught in Universities throughout Europe.
Death of King Alexander III of Scotland
Frederick III becomes the last Holy Roman Emperor to be coronated in Rome
Birth of Henry II King of France
Church property in England is confiscated by King Henry VIII in retaliation for Pope Clement VII's censures on him.
Birth of King John IV of Portugal, also known as "the Fortunate."