Monday thru Friday at

www.DailyCatholic.org

See why so many consider the
Daily CATHOLIC as the
"USA Today for CATHOLICS!"

e-mail: DailyCatholic@dailycatholic.org

TUESDAY      February 23, 1999      SECTION ONE       vol 10, no. 37

To print out entire text of Today's issue, print this section as well as SECTION TWO


The Message gets around!

      In today's editorial we harken back to last May's duo editorials in explaining our rationalization for printing the purported Prophecies of Bernadette. As of late we have received numerous e-mails on this as these articles, once again, get recycled through the DAILY CATHOLIC archives. This is a cyclical thing that happens every three months or so as new readers discover the archives. As of late we have been blessed with many new readers coming on-board. What many fail to realize when they question private revelation without discerning is that many of the traditions and spiritual fruits of the Church are built on private revelation. For today's commentary entitled Private revelation doesn't always need to be private!, click on CATHOLIC PewPOINT.

Private revelation doesn't always need to be private!

Michael Cain, editor


Greeks come bearing gifts of unity and support for Pope Eugene IV to swing votes for deciding once and for all papal authority above a council in landmark Seventeenth Ecumenical Council

      Often times it is better to lose a battle for the good of all in order that the overall victory can be achieved. That was the philosophy of Pope Eugene IV, a simple, holy Augustinian monk who was plucked from the ranks of the unknown to lead Holy Mother Church through the rough seas of dissension and mistrust. Thanks to the reunion of the Greek Church with Rome after three centuries of schism and their support for the primacy of the Pope, the papacy was saved from becoming nothing more than a democracy. For the ninety-fourth installment titled Pope Eugene IV: Taking on the Council in a struggle to the end , click on THE HISTORY OF THE MASS AND HOLY MOTHER CHURCH.
Installment Ninety-four

Pope Eugene IV: Taking on the Council in a struggle to the end

      Tired of the tough tactics of Pope Martin V, the cardinals sought to elect someone who wouldn't be such a taskmaster, especially on reform. They also wanted the new Pope to be more in concert with what the Council wanted in the aftermath of the Council of Constance. Thus the lot fell on Cardinal Gabrielle Condulmaro who was the nephew of Pope Gregory XII. Little did the cardinals realize the battle they were going to be in for with this 207th successor of Peter who on March 3, 1431 was crowned Pope Eugene IV. One of the first items he had to face was the mandatory Ecumenical Council which was opened on July 23, 1431 at Basle in Switzerland without the chief cardinal Martin had appointed present. In fact the Council was so sparsely attended and mistrust so high that Eugene dissolved it on February 15, 1431, but not before having no choice but to promise he would reconvene the council in a year and a half. He did make one stipulation that had to be an omen to the Council Fathers: the Pope would call it and he would preside over it. With that put on the shelf for awhile, the next move was to rescind the nepotism appointments Martin had made. This also entailed forfeiting vast amounts of property Martin had bestowed. Needless to say this did not sit well with Martin's relatives who rallied others to fight back. Thus Eugene had created his own monster in devoting unwanted time and energy to fending off the retaliation in Florence, Venice and Naples. Even Rome was not immune and when fighting broke out Eugene's advisors convinced him to flee to Florence for his safety. While this was happening the Council Fathers, in an attempt to get the upper hand, sent Eugene a demand that if he didn't heed the Council's wishes he could be deposed and schism could rise its ugly head once again. Though Eugene was not a master diplomat, he was a highly religious and decent man. He sought his counsel through prayer and, after discernment, refused to adhere to the Council's strict and unwarranted ultimatum.

      Though his pontificate was troubled by mistrust and cleaning up the messes of his predecessors, he was also a humble man and in this humility was the salvation of the papacy. He had already made many concessions to the Council for the sake of the Church, even to acknowledging the decrees at Constance which ruled that the Council's power is superior to the Pope. Eugene realized that though some of the battles had been lost, the war was not lost and with this spurring him on moved the Council from Basle to Ferrara, Italy. He had been strengthened by the Greek alliance which was precipitated by the call to the West for help to fight the Turks by John VII, Eastern Emperor. This had opened talks of reunion with Rome. Though his crusade against the Turks failed miserably with a bloodbath of papal troops at Varna in Turkey, the Easterners appreciated the effort and agreed to recognize the Pope's primacy, accept the statements on the Filioque which had been a consternation point in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, and agreed on the Church's stance on Purgatory and the Holy Eucharist. With this agreement set, many of the Council Fathers abandoned Basle and joined the others at Ferrara where Eugene presided. Those left at Basle, rather than submitting to the Pope and seeking harmony, opted for the other course of action: to depose Eugene and elect a new pope, in effect - another antipope.

      Felix was not as enthused about his nomination as those who had elected him and he reluctantly accepted, being crowned on June 24, 1440 after he had abdicated his dukedom. But, just as he feared, he would not get the recognition necessary for this kind of movement to succeed and, though he appointed some eminent, influential men as cardinals, this schism, thank God, never got off the ground. Meanwhile Eugene was gaining steam from the alliance with the Greeks and their power block, along with a growing list of those throwing their support beind Eugene. Yet there was still much to accomplish and those promoting democracy over hierarchy were encouraged by the fact that both France and Germany declared neutrality in the issue of recognizing the Pope as Supreme Pontiff over the Council. An insurrection near Ferrara and subterfuge by those left at Basle prompted Eugene and the Council to agree to move the Ecumenical Council to Florence. Eugene was very familiar with this central region of Italy which was among the leaders in a new form of art called the Renaissance. He introduced the Renaissance artisans to Rome and the Vatican, commissioning them to various projects at the Vatican including the bronze gates at the entrance of St. Peter's and a new chapel there. These would give way to what would become the grand and glorious St. Peter's Basilica and Sistine Chapel a century later. In Florence Eugene held the upper hand and, with more council members joining his camp and fewer to dissent there because the majority of the malcontents and hardliners had remained at Basle in what was called the "rump council," Eugene IV and the papacy were finally triumphant in 1445 when, just before closing, the Seventeenth Ecumenical Council declared the Pope was superior to a Council. Democracy was dead in so far as the Church was concerned and the papacy, as Christ had intended, was preserved for posterity with the successor of Peter being recognized as the Sovereign Pontiff.

      Politics puzzled Eugene who had longed to return to his simple, religious atmosphere as an Augustinian monk. France and Germany both tried to play chess with the Holy See in striving to capitalize and garner more power and authority, but Eugene again fell back on God's Will and was able to weather the storms that were brewing. He was quite adroit in not offending anyone, but only offering good things about everyone. This not only helped him win friends at the Council and throughout Christian Europe and beyond, but also prompted Felix V's secretary Cardinal Enea Silvio Piccolomini, who would become Pope Pius II twelve years later, to return to Eugene asking forgiveness. This final act sealed the doom for the rump council at Basle and Felix basically withdrew from all activities. He would willingly abdicate and reconcile with Eugene's successor in 1449.

      The extended fourteen-year council had taken its toll on Eugene and two years after concluding the 17th Ecumenical Council, he died on February 23, 1447 but not without honor and a sense of accomplishment for in the long run, despite the bitter battles that had claimed its share of casualties, he and Holy Mother Church had won the war. The purity of the papacy was preserved.

Next issue: Pope Nicholas V: First in the line of the Renaissance Popes


Martha and Mary bid adieu to Jesus

      Today we continue Lesson 2 on the Mysteries of the Rosary with the interior vision of Jesus visiting Lazarus' house, where He converses with Martha and Mary as a signal of what is to come - something only He knew exactly. For part two of FAREWELL TO THE HOLY WOMEN AND THE MOTHER, click on "IT IS CONSUMMATED!"

Meditative Lesson 2:

FAREWELL TO THE HOLY WOMEN AND THE MOTHER

part two

NEXT INSTALLMENT: Part Three of Lesson 2: FAREWELL TO THE HOLY WOMEN AND THE MOTHER

CATHOLIC CANVAS: Daily Dose of curious contents of the Church

Forty Days of Lent

      Some question why Lent comprises 40 days. Actually there are 46 days in Lent. Some consider that the "Forty Days" actually begin with the First Sunday of Lent and take us right up to the Easter Tridiuum which incorporates Holy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday. Others count the Forty Days from Ash Wednesday but do not include Sundays, thus taking the 40 days right up to the end of Lent on Holy Saturday. Whichever gage penitents choose, the Forty Days are "observed as a preparation for the Passion, Death and Resurrection of Our Lord Jesus Christ and as a time of penitence, prayer and fasting, spiritual and physical. Forty is the number of days of the Flood, the number of the years of the Israelites' wandering, the number of the days of the fast of Elias, the number of days Moses was on Mount Sinai and, of course, the number of days Jesus spent praying and fasting in the desert. (sources: A Catholic Dictionary, Atwater; Catholic Dispatch, www.catholic-dispatch.com).

PRAYERS & DEVOTION

      In honor of the martyred Bishop Saint Polycarp we present the Opening Prayer for the Mass commemorating his martyrdom:

      God of all creation, You gave Your bishop Polycarp the privilege of being counted among the saints who gave their lives in faithful witness to the gospel. May his prayers give us the courage to share with him the cup of suffering and to rise to eternal glory.

      For the Lenten Way of the Cross, click on either the graphics Daily Way of the Cross or the text-only Daily Way of the Cross or the Meditative Lessons on the Way to Calvary

THE DAILY WORD

"In this manner therefore shall you pray: 'Our Father Who art in Heaven, hallowed be Thy Name. Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth, as it is in Heaven. "

Matthew 6: 9-10


Click here to go to SECTION TWO or click here to return to the graphics front page of this issue.


February 23, 1999 volume 10, no. 37   DAILY CATHOLIC