Pope John Paul II tabbed him as the new Archbishop of Detroit on March 21, 1981 to replace the retiring Cardinal John Dearden. He was installed on May 17, 1981. He remained as Shepherd of Michigan's largest see until the expected announcement of his elevation to the cardinalate during the Consistory of June 28, 1988. He received the titular church of Sts. Andrew and Gregory al Monte Celio and assigned membership in the Curial offices of the Second Section of the Secretary of State, and five Sacred Congregations: the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, the Congregation for Bishops, the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, the Congregation for the Clergy, and the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life. Because of his expertise in financial matters which he had shown so clearly while in Gaylord and Detroit, on April 28, 1990 the Holy Father picked him as President of the Prefecture for Economic Affairs of the Holy See. He assumed his new duties in Rome on June 25th of that year. During his seven years in this key financial post he literally turned things around completely, bringing the Vatican out of debt because of the immense huge budgets to where the Holy See now realizes a small surplus. At 72 he is expected to continue in his post at least for three more years and because of that the Holy See's economic picture looks bright.
The purpose of the book is to demonstrate God's fidelity in giving to the Israelites the land He had promised them for an inheritance (Gen. 15, 18; Joshua 1, 2ff; 21, 41). Without divine intervention this people could never have conquered the powerful nations dwelling in Chanaan, a fact which accounts for the many miracles found in the narrative. The severity of the divine decree ordering the extermination of the inhabitants of the cities which the Israelites were to possess, was justified as a punishment for the crimes of these pagans and was directed to preserving the chosen people against the moral and religious corruption which prevailed in Chanaan (Deut. 7, 1-6; 20, 16-18; Joshua 8, 24; 10, 28-39).
The actual author of the book in its present form remains unknown. Many indications point to a date of composition prior to King David's reign; and some of the detailed descriptions, which seem to have been composed by an eyewitness, may even be the work of Joshua himself.
Jewish and Christian tradition alike accept the historical accuracy and inspired character of the Book of Joshua. The entire history of the conquest of the Promised Land is a prophecy of the spiritual conquest of the world through the Church under the leadership of Jesus the Messiah.
The Book of Joshua may be divided as follows: I. Conquest of Chanaan (Josue 1, 1-12, 24). II. Division of the Land (Joshua 13, 1-21, 45). III. Return of the Transjordan Tribes and Joshua's Farewell (Josue 22, 1-24, 33).
The purpose of the book is to show that the fortunes of Israel depended upon the obedience or disobedience of the people to God's Law. Whenever they rebelled against Him, they were oppressed by pagan nations; when they repented, He raised up judges to deliver them (cf. Judges 2, 10-23).
The accounts of various events, whether written shortly after their occurrence or orally transmitted, were later skillfully unified according to the moral purpose of the redactor sometime during the Israelite monarchy.
The book is divided as follows: I. Palestine after the Death of Joshua (Judges 1, 1-3, 6). II. Stories of the Judges (Judges 3, 7-16, 21). III. The Tribes of Dan and Benjamin in the Days of the Judges (Judges 17, 1-21, 25).
The book contains a beautiful example of filial piety, pleasing to the Hebrews especially because of its connection with King David, and useful both to Hebrews and to Gentiles. Its aim is to demonstrate the divine reward for such piety even when practiced by a stranger. Ruth's piety (Ruth 2, 11), her spirit of self-sacrifice, and her moral integrity were favored by God with the gift of faith and an illustrious marriage whereby she became the ancestress of David and of Christ. In this, the universality of the Messianic salvation is foreshadowed.
In the Greek and Latin canons the Book of Ruth is placed just after Judges, to which it is closely related because of the time of its action, and just before Samuel, for which it is an excellent introduction, since it races the ancestry of the Davidic dynasty. One might characterize the literary form of this book as dramatic, since about two-thirds of it is in dialogue. Yet there is every indication that, as tradition has always held, it contains true history.
There is no certainty about the authour of the book. It was written long after the events had passed (Ruth 4, 7), which took place "in the time of the judges" (Ruth 1, 1).
Because of some violence including an horrific electrocution, occasional profanity and intermittent rough language, the U.S. Catholic Conference classification is A-III -- adults. The Motion Picture Association of America rating is R -- restricted. "The Green Mile" is a prison drama set in 1935 Louisana where death-row head guard Tom Hanks comes to believe in the innocence of a huge, gentle black man played superbly by Michael Clarke Duncan whose miraculous healing powers affect those around him in startling ways. Adapted from the serialized 1996 Stephen King novel, the movie is unduly long but presents affecting character studies of good and evil men with spiritual undertones and a sobering depiction of capital punishment.
Because of sexual situations, comically intended violence, brief rear nudity and occasional profanity, the U.S. Catholic Conference classification is A-III -- adults. The Motion Picture Association of America rating is R -- restricted. In "Deuce Bigalow: Male Gigolo" a klutzy loser (played by Rob Schneider) tries and fails at temporary male prostitution in order to pay for accidentally wrecking his bossís condo. The pathetically unfunny comedy dredges up lame double entendres and toilet humor when not mocking characters with assorted physical diseases and disabilities who resort to paying for male companionship.
Because of much stylized violence and a few discreet bedroom scenes, the U.S. Catholic Conference classification is A-IV -- adults, with reservations. The Motion Picture Association of America rating is PG-13 -- parents are strongly cautioned that some material may be inappropriate for children under 13. "The World Is Not Enough" is typical breathless Bond fare in which Pierce Brosnan's agent 007 must outwit a dangerously duplicitous female and a sinister psychopath intent on seizing control of the world's oil supply. The escapist fantasy's fast and furious action eventually wears itself out in an overlong and overly elaborate plot.
Because of excessive violence, frequent mindless mayhem, a perverted sexual encounter with nudity, some profanity and much rough language, the U.S. Catholic Conference classification is O -- morally offensive. The Motion Picture Association of America rating is R -- restricted. "End of Days" is an ultraviolent millennium thriller in which ex-cop Arnold Schwarzenegger struggles to prevent satan, played by Gabriel Byrne, from impregnating a young woman, thus ushering in the devil's reign. The big-budget action movie simply exploits a religious theme to showcase murder, mayhem and explosive special effects far removed from genuine spiritual concerns.
Because of recurring grisly decapitations and a discreet sexual encounter, the U.S. Catholic Conference classification is A-IV -- adults, with reservations. The Motion Picture Association of America rating is R -- restricted. In "Sleepy Hollow," a violent adaptation of Washington Irving's spooky tale of the headless horseman, Johnny Depp's Ichabod Crane is a pompous, fearful NYC constable sent to Sleepy Hollow to find a triple murderer who has made off with the victim's heads. Although it's a visually gorgeous period piece, the contrived humor doesn't work and the narrative overdoses on scenes of the horseman and another villain gleefully butchering their prey.
Because of grisly violence, an implied affair, occasional profanity and recurring rough language, the U.S. Catholic Conference classification is A-IV -adults, with reservations. The Motion Picture Association of America rating is R -- restricted. "The Bone Collector" is a grim thriller in which paralyzed police forensics expert Denzel Washington relies on rookie cop Angelina Jolie to gather evidence and clues to the identity of a serial killer who is taunting the bedridden cop with a series of increasingly grotesque murders. The police procedural slides from engrossing to disappointing with its unsatisfying revelations and gory wrap-up. selfdestruction.
Because of anti-religious buffoonery, intense violence, sexual references, substance abuse, assorted vulgarities, profanity and recurring rough language, the U.S. Catholic Conference classification is O -- . The Motion Picture Association of America rating is R -- restricted. It's-a-"Dog, ma" is a sophomoric religious satire in which a heavenly messenger persuades the last descendant of Joseph and Mary to leave her job in an abortion clinic and set out to stop a pair of fallen angels from regaining heaven by means of a plenary indulgence. The unfunny proceedings rely on a mindless mix of irreverence and absurdity in poking fun at biblical characters and Christian stereotypes.
The U.S. Catholic Conference classification is A-I -- general patronage. The Motion Picture Association of America rating is G -- general audiences. "Pokemon: The First Movie" is a Japanese animated movie based on the TV cartoon series in which youngsters and their pocket monsters called pokemons gather on a remote island where they must defend themselves against an evil pokemon clone and his minions intent on enslaving the world. Colorful but crudely animated, the movie's characters battle one another while a preachy voice-over asserts that violence is wrong, thus sending a mixed message to little ones.
Because of several sexual encounters, many sexual references, some rough language and occasional profanity, the U.S. Catholic Conference classification is A-IV -- adults, with reservations. The Motion Picture Association of America rating is R -- restricted. "Being John Malkovich" is a surreal tale in which a puppeteer (played by John Cusack) is led into a passageway into the mind of actor John Malkovich (playing himself) by a female co-worker who becomes sexually attracted to the puppeteer's wife (played by Cameron Diaz). The odd proceedings grow progressively more bizarre until the endless complications wear out their welcome well before the ending's final twist.