The question so many ask is "why Mary?" Our question is "Why not Mary?" Mary provides the "female presence" in the Church, something so vital to a family and the Church is a family - the Mystical Body of Christ. Her Divine Son is the Head of the Church, she is the heart! What better personage than the Mother of God? She was God's perfect choice because He had prepared His vessel to be the purest of the pure from all eternity. The Father created His daughter to be totally free from Original Sin, the only such person to be gifted among all His creations. And it makes perfect sense for He would want the most perfect tabernacle to contain His Only-begotten Son. But Mary was not just a temporary tabernacle during the time she carried Our Lord. Like a devoted Mother she carried Jesus in her heart all her life and has continued to carry Him in her heart and share Him with all God's children ever since. By carrying Him in her heart, she also bears both the Immaculate Heart and her Sorrowful Heart for she shared everything with her Divine Son from the bitter cold that starry night in Bethlehem to the Presentation of Our Lord in the temple when Simeon prophecied that a sword would pierce her heart; from the rugged travels over rock-hewn terrain enroute to Egypt to the loss of His foster father Joseph and her chaste earthly spouse and protector; from the day He left their humble abode in Nazareth to begin His three-year public ministry to the pangs and pain of watching Him tredge up Calvary and die ignominously on the cross. But Mary knew this was all part and parcel in the mission God had intended for mankind and she played her role to perfection in perfect obedience. The Father knew this. That is why He chose this earthly daughter of Saint Anne and Saint Joachim, who provided the ideal preparation for their precious bundle of joy by submitting her to the temple to study Mosaic law. This was something few women were ever allowed, but because she was of the House of David, she was granted this special privilege. Anne and Joachim didn't know of Mary's special mission when she was a child, but we suspect intuitively Anne knew something was special about her daughter from the second she was conceived. From that time on no person in history - world history or Church history has ever been depicted in more various forms than the loving, humble, obedient ever-virgin Mary.
Today she is known by so many titles. Just peruse and pray the Litany of Loreto, also the Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and you'll see just how involved in salvation she is for she is the Daughter of the Father, the Mother of the Son, and the Spouse of the Holy Spirit. Many of her titles have been bestowed, many have been designated by Our Lady herself in her apparitions - from Zaragoza when she announced she was "Our Lady of the Pillar" to Medjugorje where she let all know through the visionaries that she was the "Queen of Peace." At one of her more memorable appearances - that of Lourdes in 1858, she told Saint Bernadette Soubiroux, "I am the Immaculate Conception." This Heavenly pronouncement confirmed, in a nutshell so to speak, the Dogma Pope Pius IX had proclaimed four years earlier on this date that the Mother of God had been conceived without the stigma of Original Sin, therefore: Immaculate Conception.
But this dogma has been misunderstood by so many Catholics and rejected by non-Catholics. They cannot fathom that God could do something so wonderful, that He would choose a human being to be so elevated. Protestants demean the role Mary plays in salvation by demeaning God's Will, supplanting that with their own finite will which cannot comprehend such a mystery of faith. That stubbornness is the very reason many have left the Church down through the centuries, unwilling to acquiesce to the Will of God expressed through His One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church on earth - the ONLY True Church founded by the Son of God which has continued unbroken for two millenniums. No other faith derives its origins directly from Christ even though the common nomenclature today for non-Catholics who believe in Jesus is "Christians" but that is truly a misnomer for they forget obedience is at the root of faith and by breaking away from the apostolic succession, by breaking with the Universal Church, by breaking from the Holy alliance of the Divine Will, and by refusing to submit to the Bishop of Rome as the legitimate successor of Peter, they have turned their backs on what Christ intended. In short, they have become allies with the devil. There is the doctrine that, for some reason or other, quite possibly because of the liberals push for ecumenism, has been buried for too long. That is "Outside the Church there is no salvation." Does that mean what we think it means? Basically, yes! All are obliged to belong to the Catholic Church in order to be saved. Jesus affirmed this in John 3: 5 when He says, "Amen, amen, I say to thee, unless a man be born again of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." Ah, but the Protestants will refute that, pointing to "being born again in the Spirit" at some revival or another. But they forget that the Catholic Church is founded on the Apostles, those whom Jesus imparted the commission to baptize. Through the Sacrament of Baptism we are made a member of the Church, we become part of the Mystical Body of Christ. In other words, Baptism is indispensable. Therefore, the syllogism follows that the Church has to be indispensable as well! Again, it must be noted this teaching is understood that those who do not know the Catholic Church is the True Church, or through no fault of their own cannot join, can still be saved. However, it speaks volumes for those who do know and by their own grevious fault, usually through pride, refuse to embrace ALL THE TEACHINGS of Holy Mother Church. This includes both non-Catholics and "Cafeteria Catholics."
Because of the importance of the above statement, we will delve into this important doctrine in the coming year. In our editorials and in our feature "WHERE IS HOLY MOTHER CHURCH HEADING AS WE NEAR THE MILLENNIUM?" we will focus on the true teachings and simple apologetics throughout 1999 - the "Year of the Father" - for the harvest is ripe, but we need to tend the fields. We have many readers who teach CCD, RCIA and Confirmation classes in their parishes as they heed the call of Jesus and His Mother, echoed by His Holiness Pope John Paul II. Therefore, we are going to emphasize the truths in the simplest ways so 1999 can be a banner, landmark year in the history of salvation. We already know how pivotal it is because Our Lady has told us. Her Immaculate Heart is about to Triumph. We need to be ready to tend to the crops of converts who will come back in droves. We'd like to think this will become the year of the "prodigal sons and daughters" and we have Our Lady to thank for keeping us ever mindful of her role as Mother of the Church and our role as obedient children to her Divine Son's Will. We have no better example to profess and teach our faith to others than this "Second Eve" for God has given us the perfect vessel. Yes, it cannot be doubted or debated. God truly knew what He was doing when He deigned that Mary would be conceived without Original Sin. Now, as the hour grows late and the second millennium dwindles to one year, the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit and, by Their Will, the Immaculate Conception, urgently beckon us all to heed the dogmas, doctrines and teachings of the Church. We've been warned many times. Now, we all have one last chance to act on what the Perfect Ones ask! It is time to come to the Tabernacle where Christ resides and there, to remember the living Tabernacle God has deigned to be Immaculate. And also to remember that Immaculateness cannot be compromised!
One of the major concerns of classical philosophy was to purify human notions of God of mythological elements. We know that Greek religion, like most cosmic religions, was polytheistic, even to the point of divinizing natural things and phenomena. Human attempts to understand the origin of the gods and hence the origin of the universe find their earliest expression in poetry; and the theogonies remain the first evidence of this human search. But it was the task of the fathers of philosophy to bring to light the link between reason and religion. As they broadened their view to include universal principles, they no longer rested content with the ancient myths, but wanted to provide a rational foundation for their belief in the divinity. This opened a path which took its rise from ancient traditions but allowed a development satisfying the demands of universal reason. This development sought to acquire a critical awareness of what they believed in, and the concept of divinity was the prime beneficiary of this. Superstitions were recognized for what they were and religion was, at least in part, purified by rational analysis. It was on this basis that the Fathers of the Church entered into fruitful dialogue with ancient philosophy, which offered new ways of proclaiming and understanding the God of Jesus Christ.
37. In tracing Christianity's adoption of philosophy, one should not forget how cautiously Christians regarded other elements of the cultural world of paganism, one example of which is gnosticism. It was easy to confuse philosophy—understood as practical wisdom and an education for life—with a higher and esoteric kind of knowledge, reserved to those few who were perfect. It is surely this kind of esoteric speculation which Saint Paul has in mind when he puts the Colossians on their guard: “See to it that no-one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deceit, according to human tradition, according to the elemental spirits of the universe and not according to Christ” (2:8). The Apostle's words seem all too pertinent now if we apply them to the various kinds of esoteric superstition widespread today, even among some believers who lack a proper critical sense. Following Saint Paul, other writers of the early centuries, especially Saint Irenaeus and Tertullian, sound the alarm when confronted with a cultural perspective which sought to subordinate the truth of Revelation to the interpretation of the philosophers.
38. Christianity's engagement with philosophy was therefore neither straight-forward nor immediate. The practice of philosophy and attendance at philosophical schools seemed to the first Christians more of a disturbance than an opportunity. For them, the first and most urgent task was the proclamation of the Risen Christ by way of a personal encounter which would bring the listener to conversion of heart and the request for Baptism. But that does not mean that they ignored the task of deepening the understanding of faith and its motivations. Quite the contrary. That is why the criticism of Celsus—that Christians were “illiterate and uncouth”(31)—is unfounded and untrue. Their initial disinterest is to be explained on other grounds. The encounter with the Gospel offered such a satisfying answer to the hitherto unresolved question of life's meaning that delving into the philosophers seemed to them something remote and in some ways outmoded.
That seems still more evident today, if we think of Christianity's contribution to the affirmation of the right of everyone to have access to the truth. In dismantling barriers of race, social status and gender, Christianity proclaimed from the first the equality of all men and women before God. One prime implication of this touched the theme of truth. The elitism which had characterized the ancients' search for truth was clearly abandoned. Since access to the truth enables access to God, it must be denied to none. There are many paths which lead to truth, but since Christian truth has a salvific value, any one of these paths may be taken, as long as it leads to the final goal, that is to the Revelation of Jesus Christ.
A pioneer of positive engagement with philosophical thinking—albeit with cautious discernment—was Saint Justin. Although he continued to hold Greek philosophy in high esteem after his conversion, Justin claimed with power and clarity that he had found in Christianity “the only sure and profitable philosophy”.(32) Similarly, Clement of Alexandria called the Gospel “the true philosophy”,(33) and he understood philosophy, like the Mosaic Law, as instruction which prepared for Christian faith (34) and paved the way for the Gospel.(35) Since “philosophy yearns for the wisdom which consists in rightness of soul and speech and in purity of life, it is well disposed towards wisdom and does all it can to acquire it. We call philosophers those who love the wisdom that is creator and mistress of all things, that is knowledge of the Son of God”.(36) For Clement, Greek philosophy is not meant in the first place to bolster and complete Christian truth. Its task is rather the defence of the faith: “The teaching of the Saviour is perfect in itself and has no need of support, because it is the strength and the wisdom of God. Greek philosophy, with its contribution, does not strengthen truth; but, in rendering the attack of sophistry impotent and in disarming those who betray truth and wage war upon it, Greek philosophy is rightly called the hedge and the protective wall around the vineyard”.(37)
39. It is clear from history, then, that Christian thinkers were critical in adopting philosophical thought. Among the early examples of this, Origen is certainly outstanding. In countering the attacks launched by the philosopher Celsus, Origen adopts Platonic philosophy to shape his argument and mount his reply. Assuming many elements of Platonic thought, he begins to construct an early form of Christian theology. The name “theology” itself, together with the idea of theology as rational discourse about God, had to this point been tied to its Greek origins. In Aristotelian philosophy, for example, the name signified the noblest part and the true summit of philosophical discourse. But in the light of Christian Revelation what had signified a generic doctrine about the gods assumed a wholly new meaning, signifying now the reflection undertaken by the believer in order to express the true doctrine about God. As it developed, this new Christian thought made use of philosophy, but at the same time tended to distinguish itself clearly from philosophy. History shows how Platonic thought, once adopted by theology, underwent profound changes, especially with regard to concepts such as the immortality of the soul, the divinization of man and the origin of evil.
40. In this work of christianizing Platonic and Neo-Platonic thought, the Cappadocian Fathers, Dionysius called the Areopagite and especially Saint Augustine were important. The great Doctor of the West had come into contact with different philosophical schools, but all of them left him disappointed. It was when he encountered the truth of Christian faith that he found strength to undergo the radical conversion to which the philosophers he had known had been powerless to lead him. He himself reveals his motive: “From this time on, I gave my preference to the Catholic faith. I thought it more modest and not in the least misleading to be told by the Church to believe what could not be demonstrated—whether that was because a demonstration existed but could not be understood by all or whether the matter was not one open to rational proof—rather than from the Manichees to have a rash promise of knowledge with mockery of mere belief, and then afterwards to be ordered to believe many fabulous and absurd myths impossible to prove true”.(38) Though he accorded the Platonists a place of privilege, Augustine rebuked them because, knowing the goal to seek, they had ignored the path which leads to it: the Word made flesh.(39) The Bishop of Hippo succeeded in producing the first great synthesis of philosophy and theology, embracing currents of thought both Greek and Latin. In him too the great unity of knowledge, grounded in the thought of the Bible, was both confirmed and sustained by a depth of speculative thinking. The synthesis devised by Saint Augustine remained for centuries the most exalted form of philosophical and theological speculation known to the West. Reinforced by his personal story and sustained by a wonderful holiness of life, he could also introduce into his works a range of material which, drawing on experience, was a prelude to future developments in different currents of philosophy.
41. The ways in which the Fathers of East and West engaged the philosophical schools were, therefore, quite different. This does not mean that they identified the content of their message with the systems to which they referred. Consider Tertullian's question: “What does Athens have in common with Jerusalem? The Academy with the Church?”.(40) This clearly indicates the critical consciousness with which Christian thinkers from the first confronted the problem of the relationship between faith and philosophy, viewing it comprehensively with both its positive aspects and its limitations. They were not naive thinkers. Precisely because they were intense in living faith's content they were able to reach the deepest forms of speculation. It is therefore minimalizing and mistaken to restrict their work simply to the transposition of the truths of faith into philosophical categories. They did much more. In fact they succeeded in disclosing completely all that remained implicit and preliminary in the thinking of the great philosophers of antiquity.(41) As I have noted, theirs was the task of showing how reason, freed from external constraints, could find its way out of the blind alley of myth and open itself to the transcendent in a more appropriate way. Purified and rightly tuned, therefore, reason could rise to the higher planes of thought, providing a solid foundation for the perception of being, of the transcendent and of the absolute.
It is here that we see the originality of what the Fathers accomplished. They fully welcomed reason which was open to the absolute, and they infused it with the richness drawn from Revelation. This was more than a meeting of cultures, with one culture perhaps succumbing to the fascination of the other. It happened rather in the depths of human souls, and it was a meeting of creature and Creator. Surpassing the goal towards which it unwittingly tended by dint of its nature, reason attained the supreme good and ultimate truth in the person of the Word made flesh. Faced with the various philosophies, the Fathers were not afraid to acknowledge those elements in them that were consonant with Revelation and those that were not. Recognition of the points of convergence did not blind them to the points of divergence.
42. In Scholastic theology, the role of philosophically trained reason becomes even more conspicuous under the impulse of Saint Anselm's interpretation of the intellectus fidei. For the saintly Archbishop of Canterbury the priority of faith is not in competition with the search which is proper to reason. Reason in fact is not asked to pass judgement on the contents of faith, something of which it would be incapable, since this is not its function. Its function is rather to find meaning, to discover explanations which might allow everyone to come to a certain understanding of the contents of faith. Saint Anselm underscores the fact that the intellect must seek that which it loves: the more it loves, the more it desires to know. Whoever lives for the truth is reaching for a form of knowledge which is fired more and more with love for what it knows, while having to admit that it has not yet attained what it desires: “To see you was I conceived; and I have yet to conceive that for which I was conceived (Ad te videndum factus sum; et nondum feci propter quod factus sum)”.(42) The desire for truth, therefore, spurs reason always to go further; indeed, it is as if reason were overwhelmed to see that it can always go beyond what it has already achieved. It is at this point, though, that reason can learn where its path will lead in the end: “I think that whoever investigates something incomprehensible should be satisfied if, by way of reasoning, he reaches a quite certain perception of its reality, even if his intellect cannot penetrate its mode of being... But is there anything so incomprehensible and ineffable as that which is above all things? Therefore, if that which until now has been a matter of debate concerning the highest essence has been established on the basis of due reasoning, then the foundation of one's certainty is not shaken in the least if the intellect cannot penetrate it in a way that allows clear formulation. If prior thought has concluded rationally that one cannot comprehend (rationabiliter comprehendit incomprehensibile esse) how supernal wisdom knows its own accomplishments..., who then will explain how this same wisdom, of which the human being can know nothing or next to nothing, is to be known and expressed?”.(43)
The fundamental harmony between the knowledge of faith and the knowledge of philosophy is once again confirmed. Faith asks that its object be understood with the help of reason; and at the summit of its searching reason acknowledges that it cannot do without what faith presents.