Death of French-born Pope Martin IV, 189th successor of Peter, noted for the uprising of the Sicilian Vespers outbreak during his regime which prompted Giuseppe Verdi to compose an opera about the event. He was elected on February 22, 1281. During his four year pontificate he strove to unite in the bonds of charity the kings and lords of the time.
Start of the Scots' War of Independence from England.
Henry of Trastamara assassinates the King of Castile - Pedro at Montiel. Pedro was known as "the Cruel" because of his abuse of the Inquisition and he was the first known European monarch to be able to write fluently.
Gunpowder used for the first time in Europe by the Venetians against the Genoese in a battle of two Catholic cities over territories. This deeply troubled Pope Urban VI, the first Italian pontiff after a long line of French popes.
St. Mary's College officially opens its doors of higher learning in Winchester, England.
Birth of the Renaissance Franciscan monk from Firenze who was a master with the brush, Fra Bartolomeo.
Birth of the master painter and sculptor Raphael Santi who would die at the relatively young age of 37.
Jesuit priest Father Henry Garner is executed for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot in which King James I falsely accuses Catholics in England for not being loyal to the throne.