Death of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, Bishop and Doctor of the Church. For more see DAILY LITURGY
The Greek Pope Saint Zosimus becomes the 41st successor of Peter. He would die less than two years later on December 26, 418. He had a strong personality which would fortify him in his insisting on the rights of the Church against foreign interference. Of very strict morals, this holy Sovereign Pontiff would ordain that illegitimate children could not be raised to the priesthood. He would also send apostolic vicars to the Franks.
Pope Saint Gregory III becomes the 90th successor of Peter. This Syrian-born Vicar of Christ would die ten years and ten days later on March 28, 741. He would seek the help of Charles the Hammer, king of the Franks against the Lombards. From this fact would be derived the title of "Most Christian" assumed by the monarchs of France ever since. He also would earmark charitable donations to the Holy See to be termed "Peter's Pence."
Saint Edward, King of England is martyred by an assassin.
First Lateran Council, the ninth Ecumenical Council to be held, is convened by Pope Calixtus II in Rome.
Death of Pope Honorius III, 177th successor of Peter. This Roman-born pontiff was elected on July 18, 1216. He defined, in the Liber Censorium the rights of the Popes and specified the ceremonial for their election. With Andrew II of Hungary, he organized the Fifth Crusade. He also received a vision in a dream about Saint Francis and recalled him to Rome to approve the Assisi saint's Order of Friars Minor.
The German Emperor Frederick II proclaims himself King of Jerusalem despite lack of support from Pope Gregory IX who eventually excommunicated Frederick for his insubordination and meddling.
King Philip IV of France, paranoid of the growing power of the Knights Templar from the spoils they gained in the Holy Lands, accuses them of heresy in his vendetta against the deceased Pope Boniface VIII and orders the burning of thirty-nine Knights, including Jacques de Molay, the last Master of the Templars.
The Catholic Queen Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, returns to Edinburgh after a time in exile.