WEDNESDAY    January 12, 2000   vol. 11, no. 8   SECTION ONE

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SECTION ONE Contents: Go immediately to the article:
  • Installment 33 of Voyage on the Barque of Peter
  • Appreciating the Gift of Faith: Corinthians
  • College of Cardinals collection - Cardinal Turcotte
  • Events Today in Church History
  • Daily LITURGY


  • With the dawn of a new millennium, the eleventh century presents problems for the Popes and the Holy Roman Emperors as upheaval in Rome and a fragile peace with the East prepares to implode

        We continue our on-going series of this abridged History of the Mass and Holy Mother Church over a 2000 year span called 2000 YEAR VOYAGE ON THE BARQUE OF PETER. Today we feature the twelve Sovereign Pontiffs, including one - Pope Benedict IX who ascended the throne three times - during the first half of the eleventh century when the Roman family clans gained power so great they fashioned the Popes, but could not contain their own people. Meanwhile the Islam scitar was becoming more menacing in the Holy Land and a fragile peace with the Byzantine Empire was tenuous at best. This was the scenario in the first half of the eleventh century. For Installment thirty-three The New Millennium - The Apostolic Line of Peter during the first half of the eleventh century," see BARQUE OF PETER

    Installment 33: A New Millennium

    part one: The Second Millennium: The Apostolic Line of Peter for the first part of the eleventh century.

    Next Wednesday: Installment Thirty-four: The Great Schism and its aftermath.
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    Appreciation of the Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians

        Today we continue with our new series in the search to uncover the wonderful treasures of the Church contained in the great Deposit of Faith, concentrating on the Books of the New Testament with today's introduction to Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians. For the eighty-sixth installment, see APPRECIATING THE PRECIOUS GIFT OF OUR FAITH

    installment 86:    The First Epistle of Saint Paul to the Corinthians
          Corinth was a Roman colony built upon the remains of an old Greek city. At the time of the Apostles it was materially prosperous and morally corrupt.

          On his second missionary journey, Saint Paul the Apostle preached about two years in Corinth, first to the Jews in the synagogues and then to the Gentiles in the house of Titus Justus (Acts 18, 1-18). After his disappointment in the use of a philosophical approach to Chritianity at Athens (Acts 17, 15ff), Paul used at Corinth a simpler presentation of his doctrine. According to the divine promise (Acts 18, 9f), he made many converts, but suffered much from the hostility of the Jews. He left for Ephesus some time after Gallio became proconsul of Achaia, i.e., about 52 A.D.

          It is quite probable that St. Paul wrote an Epistle to the Corinthians prior to the two that we now possess (1 Cor. 5; 9). The Epistle called St. Paul's First to the Corinthians was occasioned by the visit to Ephesus of members of the Corinthian church (1 Cor. 1, 11; 16, 12, 17). St. Paul, who had meanwhile returned to Antioch and undertaken his third missinary journey, learned from these messengers of certain disorders in the church at Corinth. Questions were also proposed by the neophytes to their spiritual father for solution. To correct those disorders and to answer these questins, St. Paul wrote this masterly Epistle.

          From 1 Cor. 16, 5-8 it is clear that the letter was written at Ephesus, probably in the beginning of the year 57 A.D.

      Tomorrow: Second Corinthians

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    Montreal-born Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte has always been close to his roots as Archbishop of Montreal in Canada
        We continue with this special series introducing you to the Princes of the Church. Our one-hundred-forty-fourth red-hat we feature, in alphabetical order is 63 year-old Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, the Archbishop of Montreal who has spent his entire episcopacy in Montreal. He was elevated to the cardinalate by Pope John Paul II during his Consistory of November 26, 1994. For more on Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, see COLLEGE OF CARDINALS COLLECTION

    144.   Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte
          One might take Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte out of Montreal but no one can take Montreal out of him for he was born in this cosmopolitan metropolis on June 26, 1936 and attended seminary in Montreal before being ordained on May 24, 1959. He was assigned by his bishop to various parishes in and around Montreal until 1965 when he was appointed Diocesan Chaplain of the Movement of Christian Workers, a post he held until 1967 when he expanded to working with seminarians and the clergy until 1974. That year he was named Director of the Office of Parochial Pastoral for the Archdiocese of Montreal. Seven years later on September 25, 1981 he became Vicar General of the See and General Coordinator of Pastoral Services.

          On April 14, 1982 Pope John Paul II named him Titular Bishop of Suas and Auxiliary Bishop of Montreal and he was ordained and installed on June 29, 1982. On March 17, 1990 he was installed as Archbishop of Montreal, a position he still holds. Four years later the Holy Father honored him by including him in the list of new cardinals in his Consistory of November 26, 1994. Cardinal Turcotte received the titular church of Our Lady of the Blessed Sacrament and the Holy Canadian Martyrs in Montreal. In addition to his duties as shepherd of Canada's most populated see, he also serves curial membership in the Congregation for the Causes of Saints and the Pontifical Council for Social Communications. He resides at 1071 rue de la Cathedrale, P.Q. H2B 2V4 in Montreal, Canada.

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    Events that happened today in Church History

        Today is remembered as a day of the martyrs - not liturgically, but historically for 90 saints were martyred for the Faith on this date beginning in 230 A.D. when Saint Tatiana was executed by the Roman Emperor Severus...to the mid eighth century when 38 Irish monks were slaughtered by pagans and two years later 42 Benedictine were slain by the Iconoclasts...to 1737 when four Jesuit missionaries were murdered by a Vietnamese tribal count near the Gulf of Tonkin. In addition to the martyrs, this day signals the deaths of eight other saints over the past two millenniums. For other time capsule events that happened in Church history on this date, see MILLENNIUM MILESTONES AND MEMORIES

    Historical Events in Church Annals for January 12:

    • 230 A.D.
    • Death of Saint Tatiana, deaconess and martyr who died for her faith under the Roman emperor Severus.

    • 267 A.D.
    • Death of Saint Satyrus, Arabian-born martyr who died for his faith in Antioch after an idol had been destroyed when he made the sign of the cross over it.

    • 302 A.D.
    • Death of Saint Arcadius of Mauretania who offered himself in exchange for other Christians who had refused to worship Roman idols. He was brutally beaten and his legs and arms chopped off. Rather than crying out in pain he looked fondly on his severed limbs, "You are happy, my members. Now you really belong to God. You have all been sacrificed to Him" and then exclaimed to his persecutors just before he died, "Learn from my torments. Your gods are nothing. The only true God is the One for Whom I suffer and will die for. To die for Him is to live."

    • 494 A.D.
    • Death of Saint John of Ravenna, Bishop of Ravenna for 42 years who, before Pope Saint Leo the Great turned Atilla the Hun away from the gates of Rome, John had interceded with the "Scourge of God" to save the people of Ravenna.

    • 530 A.D.
    • Death of Saint Caesaria of Arles, French abbess of the Benedictine convent in Arles which was founded by her brother Saint Caesarius of Arles.

    • 560 A.D.
    • Death of Saint Victorian. This Italian-born Benedictine abbot migrated to France and then to the Pyranee region of Aragon where he founded the Monastery at Asan.

    • 591 A.D.
    • Death of Saint Probus of Verona, holy Benedictine Bishop of Verona, Italy.

    • 625 A.D.
    • Death of Saint Salvius of Amiens, bishop who was renowned for his miraculous healings and conversions and is remembered for founding the remains of Saint Firmin.

    • 690 A.D.
    • Death of Saint Biscop, Anglo-Saxon bishop who did much in evangelizing the faith in England and made numerous trips to Rome consulting with three Popes and several saints of his day. He died at Wearmouth, England on this date at around the age of 70.

    • 750 A.D.
    • Thirty-eight Irish monks are slaughtered in Iona, Ireland by pagan attackers.

    • 752 A.D.
    • Forty-two Benedictine monks are murdered at Ephesus by Iconoclast radicals retaliating against the those religious who continued to maintain icons and statues.

    • 1203 A.D.
    • Death of Saint Martin of Leon, Augustinian priest who was a prolific writer on aesthetics and theology. He died at Saint Isidore abbey in Leon, Spain.

    • 1737 A.D.
    • Death of four Jesuit missionary martyrs in in the village of Tonkin, Vietnam. Fathers Emmanuel d'Abreu, Bartholomew Alvarez, Vincent da Cunha and Blessed Joh Gaspard Cratz were all beheaded by a pagan court from a Vietnamese tribe.

    • 1777 A.D.
    • Blessed Father Junipero Serra founds the mission of Santa Clara of Assisi in northern California.

    • 1819 A.D.
    • Death of Saint Antony Mary Pucci, Servite Friar who devoted his life to parish work through his holy pastoral care for his parishioners, especially the sick and those afflicted with the plague. He worked closely with Pope Pius IX in advancing the curial office of the Propagation of the Faith and upgraded accommodations for nursing homes, especially for children. After his death many miracles at his tomb were documented and in 1962 Pope John XXIII canonized him.

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    DAILY LITURGY
        Today is the third day of Ordinary Time in the Church Year while tomorrow is the First Thursday in Ordinary Time and the Feast of Saint Hilary, Bishop and Doctor of the Church. For the readings, liturgies, meditations, and the profile on this saint, see DAILY LITURGY.

    Wednesday, January 12, 2000

        First Reading: 1 Samuel 3: 1-10, 19-20
        Psalms: Psalm 40: 2-5, 7-10
        Gospel Reading: Mark 1: 29-39


    Thursday, January 13, 2000

      Thursday January 13:
      First Thursday in Ordinary Time and
      Feast of Saint Hilary, Bishop and Doctor

      Green vestments

        First Reading: 1 Samuel 4: 1-11
        Psalms: Psalm 44: 10-11, 14-15, 25-26
        Gospel Reading: Mark 1: 40-45

    Feast of Saint Hilary, Bishop and Doctor of the Church

          Born in 315 in Poitiers, Gaul, Saint Hilary was a bishop who lived in the 4th Century in Aquitaine which is today Southwest France. Though he was raised a pagan, life's journey brought him to Christianity at middle age through reading Sacred Scripture. In 353 he became the bishop of his home town of Poitiers and fought hard to support the orthodox cause against the growing threat of Arianism prevalent among his peer bishops. The majority of Arian bishops succeeded in getting him expelled to Phrygia where he spent time in exile. He dedicated his life to stopping this Arian menace within the Church, becoming a thorn in the side to all heretics as he preached love, not hate for those ignorant of the true teachings of Holy Mother Church. For his dedication and contributions, he was called the "Athanasius of the West." While in exile he wrote his most famous treatises De Trinitate, De synodis, and Opus historicum. Finally, after a long battle against Arianism, he returned to the place of his birth Poitiers where he later died in 368 in total peace. We can learn from St. Hilary in that though we are soldiers for Christ, we also need to show compassion and love while never compromising our faith. Pope Pius IX declared St. Hilary a Doctor of the Church on January 13, 1851.
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    January 12, 2000     volume 11, no. 8
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