Death of Mary, Queen of Scots, Catholic Queen who was persecuted by the English for her faith, and was put to death at the order of her sister Queen Elizabeth after nineteen years imprisoned by the latter. Elizabeth, fearing Mary would be elected Queen of England because her claim was more valid, did the dastardly deed.
Proclamation of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception by Pope Pius IX asserting that the Blessed Virgin Mary was conceived without Original Sin. For more on this, see LITURGY.
Pope Pius IX publishes his 24th encyclical Quanta cura which condemned errors of that time.
The First Vatican Council, also known as the 20th Ecumenical Council, is convened by Pope Pius IX at St. Peter's in Rome.
Pope John XXIII closes the first session of the Second Vatican Council, the 21st Ecumenical Council. He would not live to reconvene Vatican II which would be left to his successor Pope Paul VI.
Pope Paul VI brings the 21st Ecumenical Council, Vatican II, to a solemn close after a three year run incorporating four sessions in which sixteen documents were promulgated.